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      Impaired left atrial strain predicts abnormal exercise haemodynamics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

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          Most cited references 19

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          Role of Diastolic Stress Testing in the Evaluation for Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Simultaneous Invasive-Echocardiographic Study.

          Diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is challenging and relies largely on demonstration of elevated cardiac filling pressures (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure). Current guidelines recommend use of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide) and rest/exercise echocardiography (E/e' ratio) to make this determination. Data to support this practice are conflicting.
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            Pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction.

            Pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD) has been broadly defined as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (HF) and with normal systolic function. PDD is an entity that remains poorly understood, yet has definite clinical significance. Although few original studies have focused on PDD, it has been shown that PDD is prevalent, and that there is a clear progression from PDD to symptomatic HF including dyspnea, edema, and fatigue. In diabetic patients and in patients with coronary artery disease or hypertension, it has been shown that patients with PDD have a significantly higher risk of progression to heart failure and death compared with patients without PDD. Because of these findings and the increasing prevalence of the heart failure epidemic, it is clear that an understanding of PDD is essential to decreasing patients' morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on what is known concerning pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction, including definitions, staging, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the natural history of the disease. In addition, given the paucity of trials focused on PDD treatment, studies targeting risk factors associated with the development of PDD and therapeutic trials for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction will be reviewed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Prevalence, clinical phenotype, and outcomes associated with normal B-type natriuretic peptide levels in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

              B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used widely to exclude heart failure (HF) in patients with dyspnea. However, most studies of BNP have focused on diagnosing HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a normal BNP level (≤100 pg/ml) is relatively common in HF with preserved EF (HFpEF), a heterogenous disorder commonly associated with obesity. A total of 159 consecutive patients enrolled in the Northwestern University HFpEF Program were prospectively studied. All subjects had symptomatic HF with EF >50% and elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. BNP was tested at baseline in all subjects. Clinical characteristics, echocardiographic parameters, invasive hemodynamics, and outcomes were compared among patients with HFpEF with normal (≤100 pg/ml) versus elevated (>100 pg/ml) BNP. Of the 159 patients with HFpEF, 46 (29%) had BNP ≤100 pg/ml. Subjects with normal BNP were younger, were more often women, had higher rates of obesity and higher body mass index, and less commonly had chronic kidney disease and atrial fibrillation. EFs and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures were similar in the normal and elevated BNP groups (62 ± 7% vs 61 ± 7%, p = 0.67, and 25 ± 8 vs 27 ± 9 mm Hg, p = 0.42, respectively). Elevated BNP was associated with enlarged left atrial volume, worse diastolic function, abnormal right ventricular structure and function, and worse outcomes (e.g., adjusted hazard ratio for HF hospitalization 4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 9.7, p = 0.003). In conclusion, normal BNP levels were present in 29% of symptomatic outpatients with HFpEF who had elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, and although BNP is useful as a prognostic marker in HFpEF, normal BNP does not exclude the outpatient diagnosis of HFpEF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Heart Failure
                Eur J Heart Fail
                Wiley
                1388-9842
                1879-0844
                March 06 2019
                April 2019
                January 16 2019
                April 2019
                : 21
                : 4
                : 495-505
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute Melbourne Australia
                [2 ]Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Sydney Australia
                [3 ]The Alfred HospitalDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine Melbourne Australia
                [4 ]Monash University Melbourne Australia
                [5 ]St George's Hospital London UK
                Article
                10.1002/ejhf.1399
                © 2019

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