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      The effect of meloxicam on neonatal dairy calves: Immunoglobulin G uptake and preweaning performance

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          Abstract

          Objectives of this study were to determine effects of meloxicam administered in 2 forms on IgG uptake, growth, and health of preweaned calves. Sixteen Holstein bulls and 14 heifers with a body weight (BW) of 44.3 ± 5.24 kg were blocked by birth date in a randomized complete block design. Calves were removed from the dam before suckling, weighed, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) colostrum replacer (CR) at 0 h with no meloxicam (control; CON), (2) 1 mg/kg of BW of meloxicam in pill form before CR (PL), or (3) 1 mg/kg of BW of meloxicam mixed in solution with CR (SL). Calves were fed 675 g of dry matter of CR, providing a volume of 3 L and 180 g of IgG. Blood samples were collected at 0 h to analyze initial IgG and ketone concentrations, and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h to analyze IgG uptake. At 24 h, calves were fed 432 g of dry matter of 24% crude protein milk replacer (MR) split in 2 feedings, and free choice starter and water until 42 d. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for glucose, plasma urea nitrogen, and ketone concentrations. Time of consumption of MR, BW, length, hip and withers height, and heart girth were recorded weekly. All calves achieved adequate transfer of immunity. Meloxicam did not affect apparent efficiency of absorption, serum total protein, or IgG uptake at 6, 18, and 24 h; however, meloxicam-treated calves had lesser IgG concentrations at 12 h (24.40 and 22.59 g/L for PL and SL, respectively) compared with CON (28.47 g/L). Meloxicam treatment did not affect BW. Calves that received PL tended to gain length at a faster rate (0.24 cm/d) than those that received SL (0.19 cm/d). Meloxicam treatment did not affect MR intake, time of consumption of MR, total dry matter intake, or feed efficiency. Meloxicam-treated calves tended to consume more starter (560.4 and 515.4 g/d for PL and SL, respectively) than those that received CON (452.6 g/d). Ketone levels tended to be greater in meloxicam-treated calves (0.15 and 0.17 mmol/L for PL and SL, respectively), suggesting improved rumen development compared with those that received CON (0.12 mmol/L). Meloxicam treatment did not affect plasma urea nitrogen . Glucose concentrations of calves that received PL (73.2 mg/dL) were less than those that received SL (83.3 mg/dL). Results of this study suggest that meloxicam given at 0 h offers positive effects on starter intake, and possibly rumen development, of preweaned dairy calves. Treatment PL, as compared with SL, offered positive results for rumen development, indicated by lower blood glucose levels.

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          Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

          Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain.
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            Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA.

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              Prevalence and risk factors for dystocia in dairy cattle: a review.

              This review focuses on the case definition of dystocia, its current prevalence and recent temporal trends, the different types of dystocia and their associated risk factors in dairy cattle. The reported dystocia rates in dairy cattle internationally are generally <5%, apart from those in the United States, where they are higher. Given the skewed distribution of herd dystocia rates, average figures mask high prevalence herds. Phenotypic dystocia trends are generally increasing internationally and this trend has been partially attributed to the introduction of Holstein genes. The principal types of dystocia differ between primiparae and pluriparae, with feto-pelvic disproportion (FPD) predominating in the former and fetal malposition in the latter. In order of importance, the two major determinants of FPD are calf birthweight and maternal pelvic size. Abnormal fetal position is most influenced by the number of fetuses, parity and calf sire breed. Adequate weighting of dystocia in selection indices, achievement of heifer rearing targets prior to both service and calving, and appropriate periparturient management decisions are prerequisites for controlling dystocia in dairy cattle.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Dairy Sci
                J Dairy Sci
                Journal of Dairy Science
                American Dairy Science Association®.
                0022-0302
                1525-3198
                9 October 2020
                9 October 2020
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham, 03824
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author
                Article
                S0022-0302(20)30793-1
                10.3168/jds.2020-18501
                7544632
                706214a1-fcb5-4fa5-9e3a-5fc6f6938f76
                © 2020 American Dairy Science Association®.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 10 March 2020
                : 30 July 2020
                Categories
                Article

                calf,meloxicam,nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug,colostrum,immunoglobulin g

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