• Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties, benchmarking data, and emerging research

Read this article at

      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



      There is widespread interest in measuring healthcare provider attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety (often called safety climate or safety culture). Here we report the psychometric properties, establish benchmarking data, and discuss emerging areas of research with the University of Texas Safety Attitudes Questionnaire.


      Six cross-sectional surveys of health care providers (n = 10,843) in 203 clinical areas (including critical care units, operating rooms, inpatient settings, and ambulatory clinics) in three countries (USA, UK, New Zealand). Multilevel factor analyses yielded results at the clinical area level and the respondent nested within clinical area level. We report scale reliability, floor/ceiling effects, item factor loadings, inter-factor correlations, and percentage of respondents who agree with each item and scale.


      A six factor model of provider attitudes fit to the data at both the clinical area and respondent nested within clinical area levels. The factors were: Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition. Scale reliability was 0.9. Provider attitudes varied greatly both within and among organizations. Results are presented to allow benchmarking among organizations and emerging research is discussed.


      The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties. Healthcare organizations can use the survey to measure caregiver attitudes about six patient safety-related domains, to compare themselves with other organizations, to prompt interventions to improve safety attitudes and to measure the effectiveness of these interventions.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 40

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives

        • Record: found
        • Abstract: not found
        • Book: not found

        Structural Equations with Latent Variables

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity


            Author and article information

            [1 ]The University of Texas Center of Excellence for Patient Safety Research and Practice, The University of Texas – Houston Medical School, Houston, USA
            [2 ]Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, USA
            [3 ]Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre, London, UK
            [4 ]Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3LJ, UK
            [5 ]Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Wellington, NZ; University of Texas – Houston Medical School, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine (EJT), USA
            BMC Health Serv Res
            BMC Health Services Research
            BioMed Central (London )
            3 April 2006
            : 6
            : 44
            Copyright © 2006 Sexton et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Research Article

            Health & Social care


            Comment on this article