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      Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and mortality, postoperative complications, and quality of care in hip fracture patients: a Danish nationwide cohort study


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          To examine the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and mortality, postoperative complications, and quality of in-hospital care in hip fracture patients.

          Patients and methods

          The study was a nationwide cohort study based on individual-level linked, prospectively collected data from Danish population-based national registries covering all hospitals in Denmark. The health care system in Denmark is tax-funded, and all citizens have equal access to health care services. We included patients with first-time hospitalization due to hip fracture undergoing surgery from 2006–2016. We estimated the risk of 30-day mortality, any unplanned readmission, any reoperation, specific postoperative complications including cardiovascular events and major bleeding, and quality of in-hospital care using Cox and Poisson regression analyses comparing current and former SSRI users with non-users.


          In 68,487 hip fracture patients, 13,272 (19%) were current SSRI users, 2,777 (4%) were former SSRI users, and 52,438 (77%) were SSRI non-users. The 30-day mortality risk was 13% in current SSRI users (HR 1.16, 1.10–1.21) and 12% in former (HR 1.15, 1.04–1.27) compared with 10% in non-users. The HR for any unplanned readmission was 1.11 (1.02–1.20) in current and 1.13 (1.01–1.27) in former SSRI users and for any reoperation 1.21 (1.11–1.31) in current and 1.04 (0.84–1.28) in former SSRI users compared with non-users. The risk of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and bleeding were similar irrespective of SSRI use. No association between current and former SSRI use and quality of in-hospital care was found.


          In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, 30-day mortality and overall readmission risk were elevated in both current and former SSRI users compared with non-users. Those currently using SSRI had a 26% increased reoperation risk compared with non-users. However, SSRI use was not associated with increased risk of other postoperative complications and lower quality of in-hospital care. A limitation of this study was the inability to control for potential confounding of social deprivation.

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          Most cited references35

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          The Danish National Patient Registry: a review of content, data quality, and research potential

          Background The Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) is one of the world’s oldest nationwide hospital registries and is used extensively for research. Many studies have validated algorithms for identifying health events in the DNPR, but the reports are fragmented and no overview exists. Objectives To review the content, data quality, and research potential of the DNPR. Methods We examined the setting, history, aims, content, and classification systems of the DNPR. We searched PubMed and the Danish Medical Journal to create a bibliography of validation studies. We included also studies that were referenced in retrieved papers or known to us beforehand. Methodological considerations related to DNPR data were reviewed. Results During 1977–2012, the DNPR registered 8,085,603 persons, accounting for 7,268,857 inpatient, 5,953,405 outpatient, and 5,097,300 emergency department contacts. The DNPR provides nationwide longitudinal registration of detailed administrative and clinical data. It has recorded information on all patients discharged from Danish nonpsychiatric hospitals since 1977 and on psychiatric inpatients and emergency department and outpatient specialty clinic contacts since 1995. For each patient contact, one primary and optional secondary diagnoses are recorded according to the International Classification of Diseases. The DNPR provides a data source to identify diseases, examinations, certain in-hospital medical treatments, and surgical procedures. Long-term temporal trends in hospitalization and treatment rates can be studied. The positive predictive values of diseases and treatments vary widely (<15%–100%). The DNPR data are linkable at the patient level with data from other Danish administrative registries, clinical registries, randomized controlled trials, population surveys, and epidemiologic field studies – enabling researchers to reconstruct individual life and health trajectories for an entire population. Conclusion The DNPR is a valuable tool for epidemiological research. However, both its strengths and limitations must be considered when interpreting research results, and continuous validation of its clinical data is essential.
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            A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation.

            The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.
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              The Danish Civil Registration System as a tool in epidemiology.

              The methodological advances in epidemiology have facilitated the use of the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in ways not previously described systematically. We reviewed the CRS and its use as a research tool in epidemiology. We obtained information from the Danish Law on Civil Registration and the Central Office of Civil Registration, and used existing literature to provide illustrative examples of its use. The CRS is an administrative register established on April 2, 1968. It contains individual-level information on all persons residing in Denmark (and Greenland as of May 1, 1972). By January 2014, the CRS had cumulatively registered 9.5 million individuals and more than 400 million person-years of follow-up. A unique ten-digit Civil Personal Register number assigned to all persons in the CRS allows for technically easy, cost-effective, and unambiguous individual-level record linkage of Danish registers. Daily updated information on migration and vital status allows for nationwide cohort studies with virtually complete long-term follow-up on emigration and death. The CRS facilitates sampling of general population comparison cohorts, controls in case-control studies, family cohorts, and target groups in population surveys. The data in the CRS are virtually complete, have high accuracy, and can be retrieved for research purposes while protecting the anonymity of Danish residents. In conclusion, the CRS is a key tool for epidemiological research in Denmark.

                Author and article information

                Clin Epidemiol
                Clin Epidemiol
                Clinical Epidemiology
                Clinical Epidemiology
                Dove Medical Press
                27 August 2018
                : 10
                : 1053-1071
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, stinebb@ 123456post.au.dk
                [2 ]Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Stine Bakkensen Bruun, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Olof Palmes Allé 43-45, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark, Tel +45 8 716 7212, Fax +45 8 716 7215, Email stinebb@ 123456post.au.dk
                © 2018 Bruun et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Public health
                cohort studies,hip fracture,mortality,postoperative complications,quality of care,selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors


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