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Spin-Torque-Biased Magnetic Strip: Nonequilibrium Phase Diagram and Relation to Long Josephson Junctions

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Physical Review Letters

American Physical Society (APS)

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      Most cited references 23

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      Magnetic domain-wall racetrack memory.

      Recent developments in the controlled movement of domain walls in magnetic nanowires by short pulses of spin-polarized current give promise of a nonvolatile memory device with the high performance and reliability of conventional solid-state memory but at the low cost of conventional magnetic disk drive storage. The racetrack memory described in this review comprises an array of magnetic nanowires arranged horizontally or vertically on a silicon chip. Individual spintronic reading and writing nanodevices are used to modify or read a train of approximately 10 to 100 domain walls, which store a series of data bits in each nanowire. This racetrack memory is an example of the move toward innately three-dimensional microelectronic devices.
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        Perpendicular switching of a single ferromagnetic layer induced by in-plane current injection.

        Modern computing technology is based on writing, storing and retrieving information encoded as magnetic bits. Although the giant magnetoresistance effect has improved the electrical read out of memory elements, magnetic writing remains the object of major research efforts. Despite several reports of methods to reverse the polarity of nanosized magnets by means of local electric fields and currents, the simple reversal of a high-coercivity, single-layer ferromagnet remains a challenge. Materials with large coercivity and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy represent the mainstay of data storage media, owing to their ability to retain a stable magnetization state over long periods of time and their amenability to miniaturization. However, the same anisotropy properties that make a material attractive for storage also make it hard to write to. Here we demonstrate switching of a perpendicularly magnetized cobalt dot driven by in-plane current injection at room temperature. Our device is composed of a thin cobalt layer with strong perpendicular anisotropy and Rashba interaction induced by asymmetric platinum and AlOx interface layers. The effective switching field is orthogonal to the direction of the magnetization and to the Rashba field. The symmetry of the switching field is consistent with the spin accumulation induced by the Rashba interaction and the spin-dependent mobility observed in non-magnetic semiconductors, as well as with the torque induced by the spin Hall effect in the platinum layer. Our measurements indicate that the switching efficiency increases with the magnetic anisotropy of the cobalt layer and the oxidation of the aluminium layer, which is uppermost, suggesting that the Rashba interaction has a key role in the reversal mechanism. To prove the potential of in-plane current switching for spintronic applications, we construct a reprogrammable magnetic switch that can be integrated into non-volatile memory and logic architectures. This device is simple, scalable and compatible with present-day magnetic recording technology.
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          Transmission of electrical signals by spin-wave interconversion in a magnetic insulator.

           J Ohe,  E. Saitoh,  K. Uchida (2010)
          The energy bandgap of an insulator is large enough to prevent electron excitation and electrical conduction. But in addition to charge, an electron also has spin, and the collective motion of spin can propagate-and so transfer a signal-in some insulators. This motion is called a spin wave and is usually excited using magnetic fields. Here we show that a spin wave in an insulator can be generated and detected using spin-Hall effects, which enable the direct conversion of an electric signal into a spin wave, and its subsequent transmission through (and recovery from) an insulator over macroscopic distances. First, we show evidence for the transfer of spin angular momentum between an insulator magnet Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) and a platinum film. This transfer allows direct conversion of an electric current in the platinum film to a spin wave in the Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) via spin-Hall effects. Second, making use of the transfer in a Pt/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12)/Pt system, we demonstrate that an electric current in one metal film induces voltage in the other, far distant, metal film. Specifically, the applied electric current is converted into spin angular momentum owing to the spin-Hall effect in the first platinum film; the angular momentum is then carried by a spin wave in the insulating Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) layer; at the distant platinum film, the spin angular momentum of the spin wave is converted back to an electric voltage. This effect can be switched on and off using a magnetic field. Weak spin damping in Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) is responsible for its transparency for the transmission of spin angular momentum. This hybrid electrical transmission method potentially offers a means of innovative signal delivery in electrical circuits and devices.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            PRLTAO
            Physical Review Letters
            Phys. Rev. Lett.
            American Physical Society (APS)
            0031-9007
            1079-7114
            July 2018
            July 16 2018
            : 121
            : 3
            10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.037202
            © 2018

            https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-license

            https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-accepted-manuscript-license

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