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      Fulereno[C60]: química e aplicações Translated title: Fullerene C60: chemistry and applications

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          Translated abstract

          Fullerene chemistry has become a very active research field in the two last decades, largely because of the exceptional properties of the C60 molecule and the variety of fullerene derivatives that appear to be possible. In this review, a general analysis of fullerene C60 reactivity is performed. The principal methods for the covalent modification of this fascinating carbon cage are presented. The prospects of using fullerene derivatives as medicinal drugs and photoactive materials in light converting devices are demonstrated.

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          Most cited references 169

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          Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using red and near-IR absorbing Bodipy sensitizers.

          Boron-dipyrrin dyes, through rational design, yield promising new materials. With strong electron-donor functionalities and anchoring groups for attachment to nanocrystalline TiO(2), these dyes proved useful as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Their applicability in a solid-state electrolyte regime offers additional opportunities for practical applications.
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            Exploiting the Brønsted Acidity of Phosphinecarboxamides for the Synthesis of New Phosphides and Phosphines

            We demonstrate that the synthesis of new N-functionalized phosphinecarboxamides is possible by reaction of primary and secondary amines with PCO− in the presence of a proton source. These reactions proceed with varying degrees of success, and although primary amines generally afford the corresponding phosphinecarboxamides in good yields, secondary amines react more sluggishly and often give rise to significant decomposition of the 2-phosphaethynolate precursor. Of the new N-derivatized phosphinecarboxamides available, PH2C(O)NHCy (Cy=cyclohexyl) can be obtained in sufficiently high yields to allow for the exploration of its Brønsted acidity. Thus, deprotonating PH2C(O)NHCy with one equivalent of potassium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (KHMDS) gave the new phosphide [PHC(O)NHCy]−. In contrast, deprotonation with half of an equivalent gives rise to [P{C(O)NHCy}2]− and PH3. These phosphides can be employed to give new phosphines by reactions with electrophiles, thus demonstrating their enormous potential as chemical building blocks.
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              Polymer/Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells: Influence of Molecular Precursor Design on Film Nanomorphology, Charge Generation and Device Performance

              In this work, molecular tuning of metal xanthate precursors is shown to have a marked effect on the heterojunction morphology of hybrid poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/CdS blends and, as a result, the photochemical processes and overall performance of in situ fabricated hybrid solar cells. A series of cadmium xanthate complexes is synthesized for use as in situ precursors to cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in hybrid P3HT/CdS solar cells. The formation of CdS domains is studied by simultaneous GIWAXS (grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering) and GISAXS (grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering), revealing knowledge about crystal growth and the formation of different morphologies observed using TEM (transmission electron microscopy). These measurements show that there is a strong relationship between precursor structure and heterojunction nanomorphology. A combination of TAS (transient absorption spectroscopy) and photovoltaic device performance measurements is used to show the intricate balance required between charge photogeneration and percolated domains in order to effectively extract charges to maximize device power conversion efficiencies. This study presents a strong case for xanthate complexes as a useful route to designing optimal heterojunction morphologies for use in the emerging field of hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells, due to the fact that the nanomorphology can be tuned via careful design of these precursor materials.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                qn
                Química Nova
                Quím. Nova
                Sociedade Brasileira de Química (São Paulo )
                1678-7064
                2010
                : 33
                : 3
                : 680-693
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                S0100-40422010000300036
                10.1590/S0100-40422010000300036

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

                General chemistry

                carbon allotropes, nanomaterials, fullerene C60

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