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      Trissolcus hyalinipennis Rajmohana & Narendran (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae), a parasitoid of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae), emerges in North America

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          TrissolcushyalinipennisRajmohana & Narendran is an Old World egg parasitoid of Bagradahilaris(Burmeister). Its potential as a classical biological control agent in the United States has been under evaluation in quarantine facilities since 2014. A survey of resident egg parasitoids using fresh sentinel B.hilariseggs in Riverside, California, revealed that T.hyalinipennisis present in the wild. Four cards with parasitized eggs were recovered, from which one yielded a single live T.hyalinipennisand two unidentified dead wasps (Scelionidae), and three yielded twenty live Trissolcusbasalis(Wollaston) and one dead wasp. Subsequently, samples from Burbank, California, collected with a Malaise trap as part of the BioSCAN project, yielded five females of T.hyalinipennis. It is presumed that the introduction of T.hyalinipennisto this area was accidental. Surveys will be continued to evaluate the establishment of T.hyalinipennisas well as the presence of other resident parasitoid species.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Counting animal species with DNA barcodes: Canadian insects

          Recent estimates suggest that the global insect fauna includes fewer than six million species, but this projection is very uncertain because taxonomic work has been limited on some highly diverse groups. Validation of current estimates minimally requires the investigation of all lineages that are diverse enough to have a substantial impact on the final species count. This study represents a first step in this direction; it employs DNA barcoding to evaluate patterns of species richness in 27 orders of Canadian insects. The analysis of over one million specimens revealed species counts congruent with earlier results for most orders. However, Diptera and Hymenoptera were unexpectedly diverse, representing two-thirds of the 46 937 barcode index numbers (=species) detected. Correspondence checks between known species and barcoded taxa showed that sampling was incomplete, a result confirmed by extrapolations from the barcode results which suggest the occurrence of at least 94 000 species of insects in Canada, a near doubling from the prior estimate of 54 000 species. One dipteran family, the Cecidomyiidae, was extraordinarily diverse with an estimated 16 000 species, a 10-fold increase from its predicted diversity. If Canada possesses about 1% of the global fauna, as it does for known taxa, the results of this study suggest the presence of 10 million insect species with about 1.8 million of these taxa in the Cecidomyiidae. If so, the global species count for this fly family may exceed the combined total for all 142 beetle families. If extended to more geographical regions and to all hyperdiverse groups, DNA barcoding can rapidly resolve the current uncertainty surrounding a species count for the animal kingdom. A newly detailed understanding of species diversity may illuminate processes important in speciation, as suggested by the discovery that the most diverse insect lineages in Canada employ an unusual mode of reproduction, haplodiploidy. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’.
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            Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae) emerges in North America

            Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) is an Asian egg parasitoid of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). It has been under study in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2007 to evaluate its efficacy as a candidate classical biological control agent and its host specificity with regard to the pentatomid fauna native to the United States. A survey of resident egg parasitoids conducted in 2014 with sentinel egg masses of H. halys revealed that T. japonicus was already present in the wild in Beltsville, MD. Seven parasitized egg masses were recovered, of which six yielded live T. japonicus adults. All of these were in a wooded habitat, whereas egg masses placed in nearby soybean fields and an abandoned apple orchard showed no T. japonicus parasitism. How T. japonicus came to that site is unknown and presumed accidental.
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              Key to Nearctic species of Trissolcus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae), natural enemies of native and invasive stink bugs (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae)

              Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) and T. cultratus (Mayr), comb. rev. are under study as classical biological agents to control the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål) in North America. Here we present diagnoses for all Nearctic species of Trissolcus, including T. japonicus and T. cultratus comb. rev., and identification keys to enable separation of these species from the existing fauna. Trissolcus cultratus comb. rev. is removed from synonymy with T. flavipes. Two new species are described, Trissolcus valkyria sp. n. and T. zakotos sp. n. A neotype is designated for T. brochymenae and a lectotype is designated for T. basalis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                August 27 2018
                August 27 2018
                : 65
                : 111-130
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.65.25620
                © 2018

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