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      Stone Fruits: Growth and Nitrogen and Organic Acid Metabolism in the Fruits and Seeds—A Review

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          Stone fruits of the Rosaceae family consist of several distinct parts, and these include the flesh, woody endocarp, and seed. To understand the metabolism of these fruits, it is necessary to have knowledge of both their structure and growth characteristics. The nitrogen metabolism of the different tissues of stone fruits is interlinked. For example, there is an import and storage of nitrogenous compounds in the endocarp that are then exported to the seed. Moreover, there are links between the metabolism of nitrogen and that of malic/citric acids. In this article, the structure and growth characteristics, together with the import/export, contents, metabolism, and functions of nitrogenous compounds and organic acids in the different parts of stone fruits and their seeds are reviewed.

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          Most cited references 117

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          The sucrose-cleaving enzymes of plants are crucial for development, growth and carbon partitioning.

          Sink organs of most plant species are supplied with carbon and energy in the form of sucrose. The channeling of sucrose into sink metabolism requires its cleavage by several isoforms of invertase and sucrose synthase, which are localized in different subcellular compartments. These activities regulate the entry of sucrose into distinct biochemical pathways, such as respiration or biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and storage reserves. Other vital roles for the sucrose-cleaving enzymes include invertase activity at the site of phloem unloading and vacuolar invertase and sucrose synthase in sink organs, which drives the long-distance transport of sucrose. In addition, invertases have been implicated in the defense response and in turgor-driven cell expansion, and sucrose synthase expression is associated with low temperature and anaerobiosis responses. Finally, because sugars also regulate gene expression, the sucrose-cleaving enzymes play a fundamental role in controlling cell differentiation and development.
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            Asparagine in plants

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              Compartmentation of transport and transfer events in developing seeds.

              Developing seeds are net importers of organic and inorganic nutrients. Nutrients enter seeds through the maternal vascular system at relatively high concentrations in the phloem. They exit importing sieve elements via interconnecting plasmodesmata and, during subsequent symplasmic passage, are sequestered into labile storage pools (vacuoles; starch). Transporters function to retrieve nutrients leaked to the seed apoplasm during symplasmic passage. Maternal cells responsible for nutrient release to the seed apoplasm are characteristically located at the maternal/filial interface. Their plasma membranes are enriched in transport proteins and, in some species, these cells are modified to a transfer cell morphology. Apoplasmic volumes of seeds are relatively small, but contain high concentrations of sugars, potassium and a range of amino acids. Sucrose and amino acids are taken up from the seed apoplasm by one to two cell layers of filial tissues that juxtapose the maternal tissues. The plasma membranes of the uptake cells are enriched in sucrose and amino acid/H(+) transporters which co-localize with H(+)-ATPASES: In some species, these cells are modified to a transfer cell morphology. High densities of plasmodesmata support symplasmic delivery of accumulated nutrients to underlying storage cells where polymer formation (starch, protein) takes place. Hexoses, resulting from sucrose hydrolysis and leakage to the seed apoplasm, are retrieved by hexose/H(+) symporters.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                25 September 2020
                : 11
                1Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Perugia , Perugia, Italy
                2Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment, University of Padova Agripolis , Legnaro, Italy
                3College of Life Science, University of Dundee , Dundee, United Kingdom
                4Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Centro de Estudios Fotosintéticos y Bioquímicos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario , Rosario, Argentina
                5Istituto di Ricerca sugli Ecosistemi Terrestri, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche , Porano (TR), Italy
                6CREA Centro di ricerca Olivicoltura, Frutticoltura e Agrumicoltura , Spoleto (PG), Italy
                7Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental, and Animal Sciences, University of Udine , Udine, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Flavia Guzzo, University of Verona, Italy

                Reviewed by: Maria Elena Maldonado, University of Antioquia, Colombia; Yuepeng Han, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

                *Correspondence: Franco Famiani, franco.famiani@ 123456unipg.it ; Robert P. Walker, rob.walker@ 123456talktalk.net

                This article was submitted to Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2020 Famiani, Bonghi, Chen, Drincovich, Farinelli, Lara, Proietti, Rosati, Vizzotto and Walker

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 118, Pages: 16, Words: 11016
                Plant Science


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