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      Effect of biological factors on successful measurements with skeletal-muscle 1H-MRS

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          Our purpose in this study was to clarify whether differences in subject group attributes could affect data acquisition in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H-MRS).


          Subjects without diabetes mellitus (DM) were divided into two groups (group A, in their 20s; group B, 30–60 years old). Subjects with DM formed group C (30–60 years old). The numbers of subjects were 19, 27, and 22 for group A, B, and C respectively. For all subjects, 1H-MRS measurements were taken of the soleus muscle (SOL) and the anterior tibial muscle (AT). We defined the success of the measurements by the detection of intramyocellular lipids. Moreover, we also measured the full width at half maximum of the water peaks for all subjects.


          The success rate was significantly higher for the AT (100%) than for the SOL (81.6%) ( P<0.01). For the SOL, the success rate was 100% in group A, 85.2% in group B, and 77.3% in group C. There was a significant difference ( P<0.05) between groups A and B, as well as between groups A and C. In all subjects, there was a significant difference ( P<0.01) in the full width at half maximum (Hz) of the water peak between the AT and SOL measurements.


          We conclude that differences in the age and DM history of subjects could affect the probability of successful 1H-MRS data acquisition.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Intramyocellular lipid concentrations are correlated with insulin sensitivity in humans: a 1H NMR spectroscopy study.

          Recent muscle biopsy studies have shown a relation between intramuscular lipid content and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to test this relation in humans by using a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy technique, which enables non-invasive and rapid (approximately 45 min) determination of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. Normal weight non-diabetic adults (n = 23, age 29+/-2 years. BMI = 24.1+/-0.5 kg/m2) were studied using cross-sectional analysis. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 2-h hyperinsulinaemic (approximately 450 pmol/l)-euglycaemic (approximately 5 mmol/l) clamp test. Intramyocellular lipid concentrations were determined by using localized 1H NMR spectroscopy of soleus muscle. Simple linear regression analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.579, p = 0.0037) [corrected] between intramyocellular lipid content and M-value (100-120 min of clamp) as well as between fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration and M-value (r = -0.54, p = 0.0267). Intramyocellular lipid content was not related to BMI, age and fasting plasma concentrations of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose or insulin. These results show that intramyocellular lipid concentration, as assessed non invasively by localized 1H NMR spectroscopy, is a good indicator of whole body insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic, non-obese humans.
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            Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: effects of age, gender, and ethnicity.

            This study tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle mass is reduced in elderly women and men after adjustment first for stature and body weight. The hypothesis was evaluated by estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a healthy adult cohort. A second purpose was to test the hypothesis that whole body 40K counting-derived total body potassium (TBK) is a reliable indirect measure of skeletal muscle mass. The independent effects on both appendicular skeletal muscle and TBK of gender (n = 148 women and 136 men) and ethnicity (n = 152 African-Americans and 132 Caucasians) were also explored. Main findings were 1) for both appendicular skeletal muscle mass (total, leg, and arm) and TBK, age was an independent determinant after adjustment first by stepwise multiple regression for stature and weight (multiple regression model r2 = approximately 0.60); absolute decrease with greater age in men was almost double that in women; significantly larger absolute amounts were observed in men and African-Americans after adjustment first for stature, weight, and age; and >80% of within-gender or -ethnic group between-individual component variation was explained by stature, weight, age, gender, and ethnicity differences; and 2) most of between-individual TBK variation could be explained by total appendicular skeletal muscle (r2 = 0.865), whereas age, gender, and ethnicity were small but significant additional covariates (total r2 = 0.903). Our study supports the hypotheses that skeletal muscle is reduced in the elderly and that TBK provides a reasonable indirect assessment of skeletal muscle mass. These findings provide a foundation for investigating skeletal muscle mass in a wide range of health-related conditions.
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              Association of increased intramyocellular lipid content with insulin resistance in lean nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects.

              Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes; however, the multiple mechanisms causing insulin resistance are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the possible contribution of intramyocellular lipid content in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. We compared insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive subjects. To meet stringent matching criteria for other known confounders of insulin resistance, these individuals were selected from an extensively metabolically characterized group of 280 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects. Some 13 lean insulin-resistant and 13 lean insulin-sensitive subjects were matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat, physical fitness, and waist-to-hip ratio. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method (for insulin-resistant subjects, glucose metabolic clearance rate [MCR] was 5.77+/-0.28 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) [mean +/- SE]; for insulin-sensitive subjects, MCR was 10.15+/-0.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); P<0.002). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to measure intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) in both groups. MRS studies demonstrated that in soleus muscle, IMCL was increased by 84% (11.8+/-1.6 vs. 6.4+/-0.59 arbitrary units; P = 0.008 ), and in tibialis anterior muscle, IMCL was increased by 57% (3.26+/-0.36 vs. 2.08+/-0.3 arbitrary units; P = 0.017) in the insulin-resistant offspring, whereas the extramyocellular lipid content and total muscle lipid content were not statistically different between the two groups. These data demonstrate that in these well-matched groups of lean subjects, IMCL is increased in insulin-resistant offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects when compared with an insulin-sensitive group matched for age, BMI, body fat distribution, percent body fat, and degree of physical fitness. These results indicate that increased IMCL represents an early abnormality in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and suggest that increased IMCL may contribute to the defective glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in insulin-resistant subjects.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                20 July 2016
                : 12
                : 1133-1137
                [1 ]Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan
                [3 ]Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Medical Radiological Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, Tokyo, Japan
                [5 ]Department of Radiology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tomonori Isobe, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575, Japan, Tel +81 29 853 7834, Fax +81 29 853 7102, Email tiso@ 123456md.tsukuba.ac.jp
                © 2016 Isobe et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                mrs, skeletal muscle, imcl, emcl, biological factor, fwhm


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