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      Aplicações farmacêuticas de polímeros Translated title: Pharmaceutical applications of polymers

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          Abstract

          Os polímeros representam uma das classes de materiais mais versáteis disponíveis para aplicações em diversas áreas, inclusive a farmacêutica. Polímeros naturais, naturais modificados e sintéticos são empregados como excipientes farmacêuticos para a formulação de cosméticos e medicamentos de liberação convencional e de liberação modificada. Nos dias atuais, polímeros são desenvolvidos para atuarem como moduladores e direcionadores da liberação de fármacos em sítios específicos no organismo. Polímeros biodegradáveis, bioadesivos, biomiméticos e hidrogéis responsivos têm sido amplamente incluídos em formulações farmacêuticas. Os avanços na idealização de novos Sistemas de Liberação de Fármacos somente são e serão permitidos a partir do desenvolvimento de polímeros projetados especificamente para a área farmacêutica. Neste sentido, o presente artigo visa a revisar e apresentar informações sobre o uso de polímeros em aplicações farmacêuticas que poderão ser úteis no planejamento de novos sistemas com desempenhos superiores.

          Translated abstract

          Polymers are very versatile for a series of applications including pharmaceutical applications. Natural polymers, modified natural polymers and synthetic polymers are employed as excipients in the manufacture of cosmetics and systems for conventional and modified delivery of drugs. More recently, polymers have been developed to be able to modulate and deliver drugs to target places. Biodegradable polymers, bioadhesives, biomimetic materials and responsive hydrogels have been included in pharmaceutical formulations. The advances in the concept of new drug delivery systems will only be possible with the development of polymers specifically designed for the pharmaceutical field. Therefore, this manuscript intends to review and report information regarding the use of polymers in pharmaceutical applications that can be useful in designing new systems with improved performance.

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          Most cited references 312

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          Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials

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            The dawning era of polymer therapeutics.

             Ruth Duncan (2003)
            As we enter the twenty-first century, research at the interface of polymer chemistry and the biomedical sciences has given rise to the first nano-sized (5-100 nm) polymer-based pharmaceuticals, the 'polymer therapeutics'. Polymer therapeutics include rationally designed macromolecular drugs, polymer-drug and polymer-protein conjugates, polymeric micelles containing covalently bound drug, and polyplexes for DNA delivery. The successful clinical application of polymer-protein conjugates, and promising clinical results arising from trials with polymer-anticancer-drug conjugates, bode well for the future design and development of the ever more sophisticated bio-nanotechnologies that are needed to realize the full potential of the post-genomic age.
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              A review of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery.

              Nanotechnology has shown tremendous promise in target-specific delivery of drugs and genes in the body. Although passive and active targeted-drug delivery has addressed a number of important issues, additional properties that can be included in nanocarrier systems to enhance the bioavailability of drugs at the disease site, and especially upon cellular internalization, are very important. A nanocarrier system incorporated with stimuli-responsive property (e.g., pH, temperature, or redox potential), for instance, would be amenable to address some of the systemic and intracellular delivery barriers. In this review, we discuss the role of stimuli-responsive nanocarrier systems for drug and gene delivery. The advancement in material science has led to design of a variety of materials, which are used for development of nanocarrier systems that can respond to biological stimuli. Temperature, pH, and hypoxia are examples of "triggers" at the diseased site that could be exploited with stimuli-responsive nanocarriers. With greater understanding of the difference between normal and pathological tissues and cells and parallel developments in material design, there is a highly promising role of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                po
                Polímeros
                Polímeros
                Associação Brasileira de Polímeros (São Carlos )
                1678-5169
                2010
                : 20
                : 1
                : 51-64
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                Article
                S0104-14282010000100012
                10.1590/S0104-14282010005000009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                POLYMER SCIENCE

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