+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Pulmonary Embolectomy in the Treatment of Submassive and Massive Pulmonary Embolism

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Objectives: Significant improvements in outcomes after pulmonary embolectomy have resulted in a broadening of indications. We reviewed our experience with pulmonary embolectomy over the past 12 years with an emphasis on preoperative comorbidities and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Methods: All patients undergoing pulmonary embolectomy over the past 12 years at our institution were analyzed via retrospective chart review. Data on preoperative characteristics, operative procedures and postoperative outcomes were collected. Results: Twenty patients underwent pulmonary embolectomy between 1999 and 2011. The average age was 56 years (range 24-81) and 10 patients (50%) were female. All patients demonstrated right ventricular dysfunction and 19 (95%) demonstrated contraindications to thrombolysis. Twelve patients (60%) demonstrated intermittent hypotension, 4 (20%) required intubation and 3 (15%) demonstrated preoperative or intraoperative cardiac arrest. Survival to discharge was 95%. Conclusions: Pulmonary embolectomy has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism (PE). We achieved a 95% survival rate in a cohort of patients with significant comorbid status. Pulmonary embolectomy should be considered early in the therapeutic algorithm for patients with submassive PE presenting with right ventricular dysfunction to prevent progression. It can also be performed with good outcomes in those already suffering hemodynamic compromise.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 13

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Short-term clinical outcome of patients with acute pulmonary embolism, normal blood pressure, and echocardiographic right ventricular dysfunction.

          The role of echocardiographic right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in predicting clinical outcome in clinically stable patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is undefined. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and clinical outcome of normotensive patients with RV dysfunction among a broad spectrum of PE patients. This prospective clinical outcome study included cohort of 209 consecutive patients (age, 65+/-15 years) with documented PE. Acute RV dysfunction was diagnosed in the presence of >/=1 of the following: RV dilatation (without hypertrophy), paradox septal systolic motion, and Doppler evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Four groups were identified: 28 patients presenting with shock or cardiac arrest (13%), 19 hypotensive patients without shock (9%), 65 normotensive patients with echocardiographic RV dysfunction (31%), and 97 normotensive patients without RV dysfunction (47%). Among normotensive patients with RV dysfunction, 6 (10%) developed PE-related shock after admission: 3 of these patients died, and 3 were successfully treated with thrombolytic agents. In comparison, none of the 97 normotensive patients without RV dysfunction developed shock or died as a result of PE. A significant proportion (31%) of normotensive patients with acute PE presents with RV dysfunction; these patients with latent hemodynamic impairment have a 10% rate of PE-related shock and 5% in-hospital mortality and may require aggressive therapeutic strategies. Conversely, normotensive patients without echocardiographic RV dysfunction have a benign short-term prognosis. Thus, early detection of echocardiographic RV dysfunction is of major importance in the risk stratification of normotensive patients with acute PE.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Modern surgical treatment of massive pulmonary embolism: results in 47 consecutive patients after rapid diagnosis and aggressive surgical approach.

            This study retrospectively reviews an aggressive multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism, centering on rapid diagnosis with contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest to define the location and degree of clot burden and transthoracic echocardiography to document right ventricular strain followed by immediate surgical intervention when appropriate. Between October 1999 through February 2004, 47 patients (30 men and 17 women; median age, 58 years; age range, 24-86 years) underwent emergency surgical embolectomy for massive central pulmonary embolism. The indications for surgical intervention were (1) contraindications to thrombolysis (21/47 [45%]), (2) failed medical treatment (5/47 [10%]), and (3) right ventricular dysfunction (15/47 [32%]). Preoperatively, 12 (26%) of 47 patients were in cardiogenic shock, and 6 (11%) of 47 were in cardiac arrest. There were 3 (6%) operative deaths, 2 with preoperative cardiac arrest; 2 of these 3 patients required a right ventricular assist device. In 38 (81%) patients a caval filter was placed intraoperatively. Median length of stay was 11 days (range, 3-75 days). Median follow-up was 27 months (range, 2-50 months); follow-up was 100% complete in surviving patients. There were 6 (12%) late deaths, 5 of which were from metastatic cancer. Actuarial survival at 1 and 3 years' follow-up was 86% and 83%, respectively. An aggressive approach to large pulmonary embolus, including rapid diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention, has improved results with surgical embolectomy. We now perform surgical pulmonary embolectomy not only in patients with large central clot burden and hemodynamic compromise but also in hemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction documented by means of echocardiography.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism.

              Acute massive pulmonary embolism usually results in death if not diagnosed early and treated aggressively. Thrombolytic therapy and catheter embolectomy are increasingly used as definitive management. Emergent open embolectomy is often reserved as a last resort when less invasive methods have failed or the patient is in cardiopulmonary arrest. We reviewed our experience with early open pulmonary embolectomy in patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism from January 1998 to February 2004. Eleven patients underwent early pulmonary embolectomy. Five (45%) patients were men, and the average age was 48 years. In 4 (36%) patients, a massive pulmonary embolism occurred after a surgical procedure or trauma. The remaining 7 patients had chronic medical diseases. The diagnosis was established primarily by clinical findings along with spiral computerized tomography or transesophageal echocardiography. Eight (73%) patients survived and were discharged from the hospital. The 3 patients who died suffered cardiac arrest preoperatively and were taken to the operating room with cardiopulmonary resuscitation in progress. Only 1 patient survived after preoperative cardiac arrest. Early open pulmonary embolectomy using cardiopulmonary bypass is an effective form of treatment for acute massive pulmonary embolism with excellent long-term results. Preoperative cardiac arrest is associated with a high mortality. Spiral computerized tomography and transesophageal echocardiography are important diagnostic tools.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                September 2014
                10 September 2014
                : 129
                : 2
                : 106-110
                aDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College/New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, N.Y., and bDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA
                Author notes
                *Berhane Worku, 525 East 68th St M525, New York, NY 10021 (USA), E-Mail bmworku@hotmail.com
                363647 Cardiology 2014;129:106-110
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, Pages: 5
                Original Research


                Comment on this article