Due to the activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria, forest soils are usually net sinks for the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). Despite several hints that CH4 balances might be influenced by vegetation, there are only few investigations dealing with this connection. Therefore, we studied this soil–plant–microbe interaction by using mesocosm experiments with forest soil and Larix decidua, a common coniferous tree species within the Alps. Gas measurements showed that the presence of L. decidua significantly reduced CH4 oxidation of the forest soil by ∼10% (−0.95 µmol m−2 h−1 for soil vs −0.85 µmol m−2 h−1 for soil plus L. decidua) leading to an increased net CH4 balance. Increased light intensity was used to intensify the influence of the plant on the soil's CH4 balance. The increase in light intensity strengthened the effect of the plant and led to a greater reduction of CH4 oxidation. Besides, we examined the impact of L. decidua and light on the abundance of methanogens and methanotrophs in the rhizosphere as compared with bulk soil. The abundance of both methane-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea was significantly increased in the rhizosphere compared with bulk soil but no significant response of methanogens and methanotrophs upon light exposure was established.