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Disabled homolog 2 interactive protein functions as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma cells

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      Abstract

      The disabled homolog 2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) gene is a member of the family of Ras GTPases and functions as a tumor suppressor in many types of carcinoma; however, its function in osteosarcoma remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the function of DAB2IP in osteosarcoma and normal bone cells in vitro. The expression of DAB2IP protein was assessed in osteoblast and osteosarcoma cell lines by western blot analysis. The effects of DAB2IP expression on cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell migration and invasion were evaluated by in vitro studies. DAB2IP expression was lower in osteosarcoma cell lines than in normal osteoblast cell lines. DAB2IP expression affected cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, DAB2IP inhibited the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma and normal osteoblast cells. Therefore, DAB2IP may function as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma cell lines by inhibiting cell proliferation and invasion.

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      The epidemiology of osteosarcoma.

      Osteosarcoma derives from primitive bone-forming mesenchymal cells and is the most common primary bone malignancy. The incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals of osteosarcoma for all races and both sexes are 4.0 (3.5-4.6) for the range 0-14 years and 5.0 (4.6-5.6) for the range 0-19 years per year per million persons. Among childhood cancers, osteosarcoma occurs eighth in general incidence and in the following order: leukemia (30%), brain and other nervous system cancers (22.3%), neuroblastoma (7.3%), Wilms tumor (5.6%), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.5%), rhabdomyosarcoma (3.1%), retinoblastoma (2.8%), osteosarcoma (2.4%), and Ewing sarcoma (1.4%). The incidence rates of childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma with 95% confidence intervals areas follows: Blacks, 6.8/year/million; Hispanics, 6.5/year/million; and Caucasians, 4.6/year/million. Osteosarcoma has a bimodal age distribution, having the first peak during adolescence and the second peak in older adulthood. The first peak is in the 10-14-year-old age group, coinciding with the pubertal growth spurt. This suggests a close relationship between the adolescent growth spurt and osteosarcoma. The second osteosarcoma peak is in adults older than 65 years of age; it is more likely to represent a second malignancy, frequently related to Paget's disease. The incidence of osteosarcoma has always been considered to be higher in males than in females, occurring at a rate of 5.4 per million persons per year in males vs. 4.0 per million in females, with a higher incidence in blacks (6.8 per million persons per year) and Hispanics (6.5 per million), than in whites (4.6 per million). Osteosarcoma commonly occurs in the long bones of the extremities near the metaphyseal growth plates. The most common sites are the femur (42%, with 75% of tumors in the distal femur), the tibia (19%, with 80% of tumors in the proximal tibia), and the humerus (10%, with 90% of tumors in the proximal humerus). Other likely locations are the skull or jaw (8%) and the pelvis (8%). Cancer deaths due to bone and joint malignant neoplasms represent 8.9% of all childhood and adolescent cancer deaths. Death rates for osteosarcoma have been declining by about 1.3% per year. The overall 5-year survival rate for osteosarcoma is 68%, without significant gender difference. The age of the patient is correlated with the survival, with the poorest survival among older patients. Complete surgical excision is important to ensure an optimum outcome. Tumor staging, presence of metastases, local recurrence, chemotherapy regimen, anatomic location, size of the tumor, and percentage of tumor cells destroyed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy have effects on the outcome.
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        An oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade drives metastatic prostate cancer by coordinately activating Ras and nuclear factor-kappaB.

        Metastasis is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer-related deaths; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie this process. Here we identify an oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade that promotes prostate cancer growth and metastasis by coordinately activating the small GTPase Ras and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Specifically, we show that loss of the Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP) gene DAB2IP induces metastatic prostate cancer in an orthotopic mouse tumor model. Notably, DAB2IP functions as a signaling scaffold that coordinately regulates Ras and NF-kappaB through distinct domains to promote tumor growth and metastasis, respectively. DAB2IP is suppressed in human prostate cancer, where its expression inversely correlates with tumor grade and predicts prognosis. Moreover, we report that epigenetic silencing of DAB2IP is a key mechanism by which the polycomb-group protein histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 activates Ras and NF-kappaB and triggers metastasis. These studies define the mechanism by which two major pathways can be simultaneously activated in metastatic prostate cancer and establish EZH2 as a driver of metastasis.
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          The Molecular Pathogenesis of Osteosarcoma: A Review

          Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It arises in bone during periods of rapid growth and primarily affects adolescents and young adults. The 5-year survival rate for osteosarcoma is 60%–70%, with no significant improvements in prognosis since the advent of multiagent chemotherapy. Diagnosis, staging, and surgical management of osteosarcoma remain focused on our anatomical understanding of the disease. As our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of osteosarcoma expands, potential therapeutic targets are being identified. A comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms is essential if we are to improve the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma through tumour-targeted therapies. This paper will outline the pathogenic mechanisms of osteosarcoma oncogenesis and progression and will discuss some of the more frontline translational studies performed to date in search of novel, safer, and more targeted drugs for disease management.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sun University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510655, P.R. China
            [2 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, P.R. China
            [3 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, P.R. China
            [4 ]Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, P.R. China
            [5 ]Department of Interventional Radiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sun University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, P.R. China
            Author notes
            Correspondence to: Dr Xingmo Liu, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sun University, 26 Yuancun 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510655, P.R. China, E-mail: liuxingmo@ 123456163.com
            Professor Weidong Ji, Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, P.R. China, E-mail: wdji2008@ 123456163.com
            Journal
            Oncol Lett
            Oncol Lett
            OL
            Oncology Letters
            D.A. Spandidos
            1792-1074
            1792-1082
            July 2018
            22 May 2018
            22 May 2018
            : 16
            : 1
            : 703-712
            6019915 10.3892/ol.2018.8776 OL-0-0-8776
            Copyright: © He et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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