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      A global database of Holocene paleotemperature records

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      1 , , 1 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 4 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 2 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 25 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 2 , 30 , 31 , 1 , 32 , 9 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 6 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 41 , 34 , 42 , 41 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 5 , 50 , 51 , 9 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 34 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 35 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 63 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 59 , 70 , 60 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76
      Scientific Data
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Palaeoclimate, Climate and Earth system modelling

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          Abstract

          A comprehensive database of paleoclimate records is needed to place recent warming into the longer-term context of natural climate variability. We present a global compilation of quality-controlled, published, temperature-sensitive proxy records extending back 12,000 years through the Holocene. Data were compiled from 679 sites where time series cover at least 4000 years, are resolved at sub-millennial scale (median spacing of 400 years or finer) and have at least one age control point every 3000 years, with cut-off values slackened in data-sparse regions. The data derive from lake sediment (51%), marine sediment (31%), peat (11%), glacier ice (3%), and other natural archives. The database contains 1319 records, including 157 from the Southern Hemisphere. The multi-proxy database comprises paleotemperature time series based on ecological assemblages, as well as biophysical and geochemical indicators that reflect mean annual or seasonal temperatures, as encoded in the database. This database can be used to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of Holocene temperature at global to regional scales, and is publicly available in Linked Paleo Data (LiPD) format.

          Abstract

          Measurement(s) climate
          Technology Type(s) digital curation
          Factor Type(s) temporal interval • geographic location • proxy type
          Sample Characteristic - Environment climate system
          Sample Characteristic - Location Earth (planet)

          Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/27330

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          Most cited references508

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          Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 data set

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            Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core

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              Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation.

              The covariation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration and temperature in Antarctic ice-core records suggests a close link between CO(2) and climate during the Pleistocene ice ages. The role and relative importance of CO(2) in producing these climate changes remains unclear, however, in part because the ice-core deuterium record reflects local rather than global temperature. Here we construct a record of global surface temperature from 80 proxy records and show that temperature is correlated with and generally lags CO(2) during the last (that is, the most recent) deglaciation. Differences between the respective temperature changes of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere parallel variations in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation recorded in marine sediments. These observations, together with transient global climate model simulations, support the conclusion that an antiphased hemispheric temperature response to ocean circulation changes superimposed on globally in-phase warming driven by increasing CO(2) concentrations is an explanation for much of the temperature change at the end of the most recent ice age.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                darrell.kaufman@nau.edu
                Journal
                Sci Data
                Sci Data
                Scientific Data
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2052-4463
                14 April 2020
                14 April 2020
                2020
                : 7
                : 115
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8040, GRID grid.261120.6, Northern Arizona University, School of Earth and Sustainability, ; Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2165 4204, GRID grid.9851.5, University of Lausanne, Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics, ; Lausanne, 1015 Switzerland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0642, GRID grid.6612.3, University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, ; Basel, 4056 Switzerland
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, University of Bern, Institute of Geological Sciences and Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, ; Bern, CH-3012 Switzerland
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 186X, GRID grid.134563.6, University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, ; Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, University of Bern, Institute of Geography and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, ; Bern, 3012 Switzerland
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2299 3507, GRID grid.16753.36, Northwestern University, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, ; Evanston, IL 60208 USA
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 0096, GRID grid.223827.e, University of Utah, Department of Geography, ; Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2188 7059, GRID grid.462058.d, Université de Montpellier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution, ; Montpellier, 34095 France
                [10 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9943 9777, GRID grid.411852.b, Mount Royal University, Department of General Education, ; Calgary, T3E6K6 Canada
                [11 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 0211, GRID grid.38678.32, Université du Québec à Montréal, Geotop-UQAM, ; Montréal, H3C 3P8 Canada
                [12 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, University of London, Birkbeck, Department of Geography, ; London, WC1E 7HX UK
                [13 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 4381, GRID grid.7704.4, University of Bremen, MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, ; Bremen, 28359 Germany
                [14 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2167 3675, GRID grid.14003.36, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Geoscience, ; Madison, WI 53706 USA
                [15 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8700 0572, GRID grid.8250.f, Durham University, Department of Geography, ; Durham, DH1 3LE UK
                [16 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0450 3000, GRID grid.464551.7, University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, ; Boulder, CO 80309 USA
                [17 ]Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, 91191 France
                [18 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 4373, GRID grid.7700.0, Heidelberg University, Institute of Environmental Physics, ; Heidelberg, 69221 Germany
                [19 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0432 8812, GRID grid.1089.0, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Environment, ; Lucas Heights, 2234 Australia
                [20 ]Institute for Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum, Geesthacht, Germany
                [21 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9887, GRID grid.273335.3, University at Buffalo, Department of Geology, ; Buffalo, NY 14206 USA
                [22 ]ISNI 0000 0004 5376 5832, GRID grid.501734.4, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, ; Mar del Plata, 7600 Argentina
                [23 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0484 1763, GRID grid.418201.e, Balaton Limnological Institute, Centre for Ecological Research, ; Tihany, H-8237 Hungary
                [24 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9094, GRID grid.40263.33, Brown University, Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, ; Providence, 2912 USA
                [25 ]Alfred Wegener Institut Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Polar Terrestrial Environmental Systems, Potsdam, 14473 Germany
                [26 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2069 7798, GRID grid.5342.0, Ghent University, Renard Centre of Marine Geology, ; Gent, 9000 Belgium
                [27 ]Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB T2L 2A7 Canada
                [28 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2270 9879, GRID grid.35937.3b, Natural History Museum, Department of Life Sciences, ; London, SW7 5BD UK
                [29 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2298 9663, GRID grid.5380.e, University of Concepcion, Department of Oceanography and COPAS Sur-Austral Program, ; Concepcion, 4030000 Chile
                [30 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0402 6152, GRID grid.266820.8, University of New Brunswick, Department of Biology, ; Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 Canada
                [31 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 6853, GRID grid.42505.36, University of Southern California, Department of Earth Sciences, ; Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA
                [32 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9721, GRID grid.7839.5, Goethe University, Department of Physical Geography, ; Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Germany
                [33 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2182 2255, GRID grid.28046.38, University of Ottawa, Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, ; Ottawa, K1N6N5 Canada
                [34 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0462 7212, GRID grid.1006.7, Newcastle University, School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, ; Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE17RU UK
                [35 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0598 3800, GRID grid.478592.5, British Antarctic Survey, Palaeoenvironments and Ice Sheets, ; Cambridge, CB3 0ET UK
                [36 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2168 186X, GRID grid.134563.6, University of Arizona, School of Anthropology, ; Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
                [37 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2182 2255, GRID grid.28046.38, University of Ottawa, Department of Geography, Environment and Geomatics, ; Ottawa, K1N6N5 Canada
                [38 ]Aquatica GmbH, Bern, 3007 Switzerland
                [39 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9401 4729, GRID grid.440044.0, Okanagan College, Department of Geography and Earth and Environmental Science, ; Kelowna, V1Y 4X8 Canada
                [40 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0303 540X, GRID grid.5884.1, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of the Natural and Built Environment, ; Sheffield, S1 1WB UK
                [41 ]University of Innsbruck, Department of Ecology, Innsbruck, 6020 Austria
                [42 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 6853, GRID grid.42505.36, University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute, ; Marina Del Rey, CA 90292 USA
                [43 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9297, GRID grid.5491.9, University of Southampton, School of Geography and Environmental Science, ; Southampton, SO17 1BJ UK
                [44 ]The LAKES Institute, Lyss, 3250 Switzerland
                [45 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 5538, GRID grid.412262.1, Northwest University, China, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, ; Xi’an, 710027 China
                [46 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, University of Bern, Palaeoecology, ; Bern, CH-3013 Switzerland
                [47 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, ; Lahti, 15140 Finland
                [48 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, University College London, Department of Geography, ; London, WC1E 6BT UK
                [49 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 6276, GRID grid.5591.8, Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Environmental and Landscape Geography, ; Budapest, 1117 Hungary
                [50 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2285 7943, GRID grid.261331.4, The Ohio State University, Department of Geography and Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, ; Columbus, OH 43210 USA
                [51 ]CONICET Argentina, CENAC/APN, Bariloche, RN 8400 Argentina
                [52 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0942 1117, GRID grid.11348.3f, Potsdam University, Institute of Geosciences, ; Potsdam, 14476 Germany
                [53 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2342 9668, GRID grid.14476.30, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography, ; Moscow, 119991 Russia
                [54 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2194 0956, GRID grid.10267.32, Masaryk University, Department of Botany and Zoology, ; Brno, 61137 Czech Republic
                [55 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 842X, GRID grid.253135.3, Bishop’s University, Department of Environment and Geography, ; Sherbrooke, Quebec J1M 1Z7 Canada
                [56 ]GRID grid.465505.7, Université Laval, Department of Geography, Center for Northern Studies, ; Québec, G1V 0A6 Canada
                [57 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9730 2769, GRID grid.10789.37, University of Lodz, Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, ; Lodz, 90-237 Poland
                [58 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 738X, GRID grid.213876.9, University of Georgia, Department of Geography, ; Athens, GA 30606 USA
                [59 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0488 0789, GRID grid.6142.1, National University of Ireland Galway, School of Geography, Archaeology and Irish Studies, ; Galway, H91 TK33 Ireland
                [60 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2292 3111, GRID grid.267827.e, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, ; Wellington, 6012 New Zealand
                [61 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9139 2281, GRID grid.263652.6, Sinclair Community College, Geography Department, ; Dayton, OH 45402 USA
                [62 ]Fisheries and Ocean Canada, Gulf Fisheries Centre, Moncton, NB E1C 9B6 Canada
                [63 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0410 2071, GRID grid.7737.4, University of Helsinki, Department of Geosciences and Geography, ; Helsinki, 00014 Finland
                [64 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2270 9879, GRID grid.35937.3b, The Natural History Museum, ; London, SW7 5BD UK
                [65 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9377, GRID grid.10548.38, Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography, ; Stockholm, SE-106 91 Sweden
                [66 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8630, GRID grid.410319.e, Concordia University, Geography, Planning and Environment, ; Montreal, H3G 1M8 Canada
                [67 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1763 0578, GRID grid.7240.1, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, ; Venezia, 30172 Italy
                [68 ]GRID grid.440630.5, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Research Laboratory of the Environmental management, ; St. Petersburg, 191186 Russia
                [69 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0247, GRID grid.5841.8, Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Secció Ecologia, ; Barcelona, 08028 Spain
                [70 ]ISNI 0000000123318773, GRID grid.7872.a, University College Cork, Department of Geography, ; Cork, Ireland
                [71 ]NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, LFI, Bergen, 5008 Norway
                [72 ]GRID grid.454206.1, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Information, ; Boulder, CO 80305 USA
                [73 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, GRID grid.17091.3e, University of British Columbia, Department of Biology; Department of Earth, Environmental and Geographic Sciences, ; Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 Canada
                [74 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0747 5306, GRID grid.419186.3, Landcare Research, Ecosystems and Conservation, ; Lincoln, 7640 New Zealand
                [75 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1799 2325, GRID grid.458478.2, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, ; Nanjing, 210008 China
                [76 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2192 9124, GRID grid.4886.2, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, ; Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630090 Russia
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7572-1414
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3598-5113
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8694-7809
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5793-0896
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9080-9289
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9923-4311
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2078-0361
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1635-5469
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6171-7716
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6489-7123
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0374-4040
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4460-8344
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5920-4751
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2497-3005
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8297-0574
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4677-7432
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3553-8842
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4466-424X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3659-4934
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6925-3688
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7471-997X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9883-8124
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8847-9081
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2494-7955
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4950-3664
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4474-8569
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0365-0602
                Article
                445
                10.1038/s41597-020-0445-3
                7156486
                32286335
                709b4b37-dc41-46e6-8288-6549763bc896
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ applies to the metadata files associated with this article.

                History
                : 5 November 2019
                : 9 March 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000001, National Science Foundation (NSF);
                Award ID: AGS-1602105
                Award ID: AGS-1903548
                Award ID: AGS-1602105
                Award ID: AGS-1903548
                Award ID: AGS-1602301
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Swiss National Science Foundation IZSEZO 180887
                Funded by: Swiss National Science Foundation SNF 200021-165494
                Funded by: Heising‐Simons Foundation 2016‐015
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                palaeoclimate,climate and earth system modelling

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