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      Intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant for the treatment of persistent post-surgical cystoid macular edema in vitrectomized eyes

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          Abstract

          Cystoid macular edema (CME) is the most common cause of decreased visual acuity after both vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Various strategies have been used for its treatment, such as intravitreal corticosteroids. The intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant (Iluvien ®) is approved for the treatment of persisting diabetic macular edema and for the prevention of recurrence of non-infectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment. There are very few reports about its off-label use for post-surgical CME. We present four clinical cases of post-surgical CME (three following vitrectomy and one following cataract surgery in a vitrectomized eye 2 years ago). All of them had been previously treated with an average of four injections of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex ®), with repeated recurrence of CME. After treatment with Iluvien, three cases showed improvement of both visual acuity and macular anatomy, with resolution of the macular edema. One patient required additional treatment with Ozurdex during follow-up, further improving CME. Two of the cases required topical pressure lowering treatment, and none required filtering surgery. Iluvien could be an effective therapeutic option for persistent non-diabetic macular edema after vitrectomy or cataract surgery refractory to other intravitreal therapies, with the benefit of being able to provide longer recurrence-free periods.

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          Most cited references9

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          Sustained delivery fluocinolone acetonide vitreous inserts provide benefit for at least 3 years in patients with diabetic macular edema.

          To assess long-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal inserts releasing 0.2 μg/d (low dose) or 0.5 μg/d (high dose) fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Two randomized, sham injection-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trials. Subjects with persistent DME despite ≥1 macular laser treatment were randomized 1:2:2 to sham injection (n = 185), low-dose insert (n = 375), or high-dose insert (n = 393). Subjects received study drug or sham injection and after 6 weeks were eligible for rescue laser. Based on retreatment criteria, additional study drug or sham injections could be given after 1 year. Percentage of patients with improvement of ≥15 letters from baseline. Secondary outcomes included other parameters of visual function and foveal thickness. At month 36, the percentage of patients who gained ≥15 in letter score using the last observation carried forward method was 28.7% (low dose) and 27.8% (high dose) in the FAc insert groups compared with 18.9% (P = 0.018) in the sham group, and considering only those patients still in the trial at month 36, it was 33.0% (low dose) and 31.9% (high dose) compared with 21.4% in the sham group (P = 0.030). Preplanned subgroup analysis demonstrated a doubling of benefit compared with sham injections in patients who reported duration of DME ≥3 years at baseline; the percentage who gained ≥15 in letter score at month 36 was 34.0% (low dose; P<0.001) or 28.8% (high dose; P = 0.002) compared with 13.4% (sham). An improvement ≥2 steps in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study retinopathy scale occurred in 13.7% (low dose) and 10.1% (high dose) compared with 8.9% in the sham group. Almost all phakic patients in the FAc insert groups developed cataract, but their visual benefit after cataract surgery was similar to that in pseudophakic patients. The incidence of incisional glaucoma surgery at month 36 was 4.8% in the low-dose group and 8.1% in the high-dose insert group. In patients with DME FAc inserts provide substantial visual benefit for up to 3 years and would provide a valuable addition to the options available for patients with DME. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release dexamethasone intravitreal implant in vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes.

            To evaluate dexamethasone pharmacokinetics after implantation of a sustained-release dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes. The right eyes of 25 rabbits underwent vitrectomy; contralateral eyes served as nonvitrectomy controls. The 0.7-mg DEX implant was injected into both eyes, and drug concentrations were determined in the vitreous humor and retina for 31 days (on days 2, 8, 15, 22, and 31). DEX was present in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes for at least 31 days. There were no statistically significant differences in DEX concentration between nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes at any time point (P > 0.05). The maximum concentration of DEX in nonvitrectomized versus vitrectomized eyes for vitreous humor was 791 ng/mL (day 22) versus 731 ng/mL (day 22), respectively, and for retina it was 4110 ng/mL (day 15) versus 3670 ng/mL (day 22), respectively. Mean absorption (AUC(0-tlast)) of dexamethasone in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes was not different for both the vitreous humor (13,600 vs. 15,000 ng/day/mL; P = 0.73) and retina (67,600 vs. 50,200 ng/day/mL; P = 0.47). The vitreoretinal pharmacokinetic profiles were similar between nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes. These observations are consistent with clinical findings of the DEX implant in patients who have undergone vitrectomy and should reduce concerns about the use of the DEX implant in eyes that have undergone vitrectomy.
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              Sustained ocular delivery of fluocinolone acetonide by an intravitreal insert.

              To compare Iluvien intravitreal inserts that release 0.2 or 0.5 microg/day of fluocinolone acetonide (FA) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Prospective, randomized, interventional, multicenter clinical trial. We included 37 patients with DME. Subjects with persistent DME despite > or = 1 focal/grid laser therapy were randomized 1:1 to receive an intravitreal insertion of a 0.2- or a 0.5-microg/day insert. The primary end point was aqueous levels of FA throughout the study with an important secondary outcome of the change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at month 12. The mean aqueous level of FA peaked at 3.8 ng/ml at 1 week and 1 month after administration of a 0.5-microg/day insert and was 3.4 and 2.7 ng/ml 1 week and 1 month after administration of a 0.2-microg/day insert. For both inserts, FA levels decreased slowly thereafter and were approximately 1.5 ng/ml for each at month 12. The mean change from baseline in BCVA was 7.5, 6.9, and 5.7 letters at months 3, 6, and 12, respectively, after administration of a 0.5 microg/day-insert and was 5.1, 2.7, and 1.3 letters at months 3, 6, and 12, respectively, after administration of a 0.2-microg/day insert. There was a mild increase in mean intraocular pressure after administration of 0.5-microg/day inserts, but not after administration of 0.2-microg/day inserts. The FA intravitreal inserts provide excellent sustained intraocular release of FA for > or = 1 year. Although the number of patients in this trial was small, the data suggest that the inserts provide reduction of edema and improvement in BCVA in patients with DME with mild effects on intraocular pressure over the span of 1 year. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                European Journal of Ophthalmology
                European Journal of Ophthalmology
                SAGE Publications
                1120-6721
                1724-6016
                January 2023
                November 26 2021
                January 2023
                : 33
                : 1
                : NP23-NP27
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Clínic Institute of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain
                Article
                10.1177/11206721211046718
                34836464
                709bb5a4-6ada-457e-b53f-606193062d30
                © 2023

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