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      Facial Anthropometric Norms among Kosovo - Albanian Adults


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          The development of an anthropometric craniofacial database is a necessary multidisciplinary proposal.


          The aim of this study was to establish facial anthropometric norms and to investigate into sexual dimorphism in facial variables among Kosovo Albanian adults.

          Materials and Methods

          The sample included 204 students of Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina. Using direct anthropometry, a series of 8 standard facial measurements was taken on each subject with digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm (Boss, Hamburg-Germany). The normative data and percentile rankings were calculated. Gender differences in facial variables were analyzed using t- test for independent samples (p<0.05). The index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) and percentage of sexual dimorphism were calculated for each facial measurement.

          Results: N

          ormative data for all facial anthropometric measurements in males were higher than in females. Male average norms compared with the female average norms differed significantly from each other (p>0.05).The highest index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) was found for the lower facial height 1.120, for which the highest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 12.01%., was also found. The lowest ISD was found for intercanthal width, 1.022, accompanied with the lowest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 2.23%.


          The obtained results have established the facial anthropometric norms among Kosovo Albanian adults. Sexual dimorphism has been confirmed for each facial measurement.

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          Most cited references 34

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          International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races.

          When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various races/ethnic groups were discovered. To treat congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in members of these groups successfully, surgeons require access to craniofacial databases based on accurate anthropometric measurements. Normative data of facial measurements are indispensable to precise determination of the degree of deviations from the normal. The set of anthropometric measurements of the face in the population studied was gathered by an international team of scientists. Investigators in the country of the given ethnic group, experienced and/or specially trained in anthropometric methods, carried out the measurements. The normal range in each resultant database was then established, providing valuable information about major facial characteristics. Comparison of the ethnic groups' databases with the established norms of the North America whites (NAW) offered the most suitable way to select a method for successful treatment. The study group consisted of 1470 healthy subjects (18 to 30 years), 750 males and 720 females. The largest group (780 subjects, 53.1%) came from Europe, all of them Caucasians. Three were drawn from the Middle-East (180 subjects, 12.2%), five from Asia (300 subjects, 20.4%) and four from peoples of African origin (210 subjects, 14.3%). Their morphological characteristics were determined by 14 anthropometric measurements, 10 of them used already by classic facial artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer, complemented by four measurements from the nasal, labio-oral and ear regions. In the regions with single measurements, identical values to NAW in forehead height, mouth width, and ear height were found in 99.7% in both sexes, while in those with multiple measurements, vertical measurements revealed a higher frequency of identical values than horizontal ones. The orbital regions exhibited the greatest variations in identical and contrasting measurements in comparison to NAW. Nose heights and widths contrasted sharply: in relation to NAW the nose was very or extremely significantly wide in both sexes of Asian and Black ethnic groups. Among Caucasians, nose height significantly differed from NAW in three ethnic groups, with one shorter and two greater. In the Middle Eastern groups nose width was identical to those of NAW but the height was significantly greater. The present study, conducted by investigators working separately across the world and with small samples of the population, is clearly preliminary in nature and extent. Yet it may fulfill its mission if medical and anthropological investigators continue the work of establishing normative data of the face. These data are urgently needed by medical professionals but have been lacking up till now in western and northern Europe, Asia, and Africa.
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            Age Synthesis and Estimation via Faces: A Survey

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              Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex.

              The relationship between allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex was analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Thin-plate splines (TPS) analysis has been applied to investigate the lateral profile of complete adult skulls of known sex. Twenty-nine three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial and mandibular landmark coordinates were recorded from a sample of 52 adult females and 52 adult males of known age and sex. No difference in the influence of size on shape was detected between sexes. Both size and sex had significant influences on shape. As expected, the influence of centroid size on shape (allometry) revealed a shift in the proportions of the neurocranium and the viscerocranium, with a marked allometric variation of the lower face. Adjusted for centroid size, males presented a relatively larger size of the nasopharyngeal space than females. A mean-male TPS transformation revealed a larger piriform aperture, achieved by an increase of the angulation of the nasal bones and a downward rotation of the anterior nasal floor. Male pharynx expansion was also reflected by larger choanae and a more posteriorly inclined basilar part of the occipital clivus. Male muscle attachment sites appeared more pronounced. In contrast, the mean-female TPS transformation was characterized by a relatively small nasal aperture. The occipital clivus inclined anteriorly, and muscle insertion areas became smoothed. Besides these variations, both maxillary and mandibular alveolar regions became prognathic. The sex-specific TPS deformation patterns are hypothesized to be associated with sexual differences in body composition and energetic requirements. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Acta Stomatol Croat
                Acta Stomatol Croat
                Acta Stomatologica Croatica
                University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine, and Croatian Dental Society - Croatian Medical Association
                September 2017
                September 2017
                : 51
                : 3
                : 195-206
                Department of Prosthodontics, Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina, and University Dentistry Clinical Center of Republic of Kosovo
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence 
Venera Bimbashi
University of Pristina, 
Republic of Kosovo 
Dental School, Faculty of Medicine,
Department of Prosthodontics Rrethi i Spitalit 
p.n. 10000 Pristina, Republic of Kosovo 
 vbimbashi@ 123456gmail.com

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) 4.0 License.

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