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      A new species from subtropical Brazil and evidence of multiple pelvic fin losses in catfishes of the genus Cambeva (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae)

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          A third pelvic-less species of Cambeva from river basins draining the Geral mountain range in southern Brazil is described. It is distinguished from other congeners lacking pelvic fin and girdle, C. pascuali and C. tropeiro, by having six pectoral-fin rays, 20–23 dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays, 15–20 opercular and 25–30 interopercular odontodes and a different colour pattern consisting of flank dark brownish-grey with two irregular horizontal rows of small pale yellow grey marks. Whereas available molecular evidence indicates that C. pascuali is more closely related to C. zonata, a species with well-developed pelvic fin, and C. tropeiro is more closely related to C. balios, another species also with well-developed pelvic fin; osteological data strongly suggest that the new species herein described is more closely related to C. diatropoporos than to other congeners. Therefore, this study indicates that the pelvic fin and pelvic-fin support have been lost independently in each of these three species of Cambeva, which corresponds to 11% of all describe species. This result highly contrasts with the closely-related trichomycterine genera Trichomycterus, in which only one in 50 species lost pelvic fin and girdle (0.2%) and Scleronema with all the nine included species having well-developed pelvic fin. These data suggest a stronger tendency to losing pelvic fin in Cambeva, but factors favouring this evolutionary event are still unknown.

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          The urohyal: Development and homology within osteichthyans

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            Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

            Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and ontogenetic investigations interpreted in the light of well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses.
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              Taxonomic review of the genus Trichomycterus Valenciennes (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from the laguna dos Patos system, Southern Brazil

              The species of the genus Trichomycterus inhabiting the laguna dos Patos system are reviewed and five species are recognized. Trichomycterus tropeiro Ferrer & Malabarba has a restricted range and is endemic to the uppermost portion of the rio das Antas. Trichomycterus balios, n. sp., is distributed in the upper portion of the rio das Antas and rio Caí basins. Trichomycterus diatropoporos, n. sp., is endemic to the rio da Prata basin, a tributary of the rio das Antas. Trichomycterus poikilos, n. sp., is widely distributed in the upper portion of the rio Jacuí basin and tributaries of the rio Taquari-Antas. Trichomycterus brachykechenos, n. sp., is endemic to the upper portion of the rio dos Sinos. The new species are distinguishable from most congeners, except for T. davisi, T. mboycy, T. naipi, T. payaya, T. papilliferus, T. perkos, T. plumbeus, and T. tropeiro by the lower number of pectoral-fin rays (I+5-6) and by the first pectoral-fin ray not prolonged as a filament. Other characters distinguish the new taxa from these eight species. The distribution of the genus in the laguna dos Patos system is discussed and a taxonomic key is provided.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                November 11 2020
                November 11 2020
                : 96
                : 2
                : 715-722
                Article
                10.3897/zse.96.56247
                © 2020

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