A third pelvic-less species of Cambeva from river basins draining the Geral mountain range in southern Brazil is described. It is distinguished from other congeners lacking pelvic fin and girdle, C. pascuali and C. tropeiro, by having six pectoral-fin rays, 20–23 dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays, 15–20 opercular and 25–30 interopercular odontodes and a different colour pattern consisting of flank dark brownish-grey with two irregular horizontal rows of small pale yellow grey marks. Whereas available molecular evidence indicates that C. pascuali is more closely related to C. zonata, a species with well-developed pelvic fin, and C. tropeiro is more closely related to C. balios, another species also with well-developed pelvic fin; osteological data strongly suggest that the new species herein described is more closely related to C. diatropoporos than to other congeners. Therefore, this study indicates that the pelvic fin and pelvic-fin support have been lost independently in each of these three species of Cambeva, which corresponds to 11% of all describe species. This result highly contrasts with the closely-related trichomycterine genera Trichomycterus, in which only one in 50 species lost pelvic fin and girdle (0.2%) and Scleronema with all the nine included species having well-developed pelvic fin. These data suggest a stronger tendency to losing pelvic fin in Cambeva, but factors favouring this evolutionary event are still unknown.