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      Antimicrobial peptides as a feed additive alternative to animal production, food safety and public health implications: An overview

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          Abstract

          In the last few years, feed additives have been used in animal nutrition to improve nutrient utilization, health parameters and animal performance. However, the use of antibiotics as feed additives has allowed the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which can bring as a consequence, an increase in the morbidity and mortality of diseases that were previously treatable with antibiotics. In this context, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have appeared as a promising strategy because they have multiple biological activities and represent a powerful strategy to prevent the development of resistant microorganisms. Despite the small number of studies applied in vivo, AMP appear as a potent alternative to the use of antibiotics in animal nutrition, due to an increase in feed efficiency and the prevention/treatment of some animal diseases. This review discusses the problems associated with antimicrobial resistance and the use of AMP as a strong candidate to replace conventional antibiotics, mainly in the animal industry.

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          Antimicrobial peptides: pore formers or metabolic inhibitors in bacteria?

          Antimicrobial peptides are an abundant and diverse group of molecules that are produced by many tissues and cell types in a variety of invertebrate, plant and animal species. Their amino acid composition, amphipathicity, cationic charge and size allow them to attach to and insert into membrane bilayers to form pores by 'barrel-stave', 'carpet' or 'toroidal-pore' mechanisms. Although these models are helpful for defining mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity, their relevance to how peptides damage and kill microorganisms still need to be clarified. Recently, there has been speculation that transmembrane pore formation is not the only mechanism of microbial killing. In fact several observations suggest that translocated peptides can alter cytoplasmic membrane septum formation, inhibit cell-wall synthesis, inhibit nucleic-acid synthesis, inhibit protein synthesis or inhibit enzymatic activity. In this review the different models of antimicrobial-peptide-induced pore formation and cell killing are presented.
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            APD3: the antimicrobial peptide database as a tool for research and education

            The antimicrobial peptide database (APD, http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/) is an original database initially online in 2003. The APD2 (2009 version) has been regularly updated and further expanded into the APD3. This database currently focuses on natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with defined sequence and activity. It includes a total of 2619 AMPs with 261 bacteriocins from bacteria, 4 AMPs from archaea, 7 from protists, 13 from fungi, 321 from plants and 1972 animal host defense peptides. The APD3 contains 2169 antibacterial, 172 antiviral, 105 anti-HIV, 959 antifungal, 80 antiparasitic and 185 anticancer peptides. Newly annotated are AMPs with antibiofilm, antimalarial, anti-protist, insecticidal, spermicidal, chemotactic, wound healing, antioxidant and protease inhibiting properties. We also describe other searchable annotations, including target pathogens, molecule-binding partners, post-translational modifications and animal models. Amino acid profiles or signatures of natural AMPs are important for peptide classification, prediction and design. Finally, we summarize various database applications in research and education.
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              Emerging Strategies to Combat ESKAPE Pathogens in the Era of Antimicrobial Resistance: A Review

              The acronym ESKAPE includes six nosocomial pathogens that exhibit multidrug resistance and virulence: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. Persistent use of antibiotics has provoked the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) bacteria, which render even the most effective drugs ineffective. Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria have emerged as an important therapeutic challenge. Development of novel therapeutics to treat drug resistant infections, especially those caused by ESKAPE pathogens is the need of the hour. Alternative therapies such as use of antibiotics in combination or with adjuvants, bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, nanoparticles, and photodynamic light therapy are widely reported. Many reviews published till date describe these therapies with respect to the various agents used, their dosage details and mechanism of action against MDR pathogens but very few have focused specifically on ESKAPE. The objective of this review is to describe the alternative therapies reported to treat ESKAPE infections, their advantages and limitations, potential application in vivo, and status in clinical trials. The review further highlights the importance of a combinatorial approach, wherein two or more therapies are used in combination in order to overcome their individual limitations, additional studies on which are warranted, before translating them into clinical practice. These advances could possibly give an alternate solution or extend the lifetime of current antimicrobials.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Anim Nutr
                Anim Nutr
                Animal Nutrition
                KeAi Publishing
                2405-6545
                2405-6383
                31 May 2021
                September 2021
                31 May 2021
                : 7
                : 3
                : 896-904
                Affiliations
                [a ]São Paulo State University, School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
                [b ]São Paulo State University, School of Sciences and Engineering, Tupã, São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. raiza.silveira@ 123456unesp.br
                Article
                S2405-6545(21)00083-4
                10.1016/j.aninu.2021.01.004
                8484980
                34632120
                70d29f55-93d6-40dd-bd5d-55eef69bb952
                © 2021 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co. Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 31 August 2020
                : 21 December 2020
                : 28 January 2021
                Categories
                Review Article

                additive,antimicrobial peptide,broiler,cattle,laying hen,pig
                additive, antimicrobial peptide, broiler, cattle, laying hen, pig

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