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      Chronic Hypercalcemia as the Presenting Feature of Tuberculous Peritonitis in a Hemodialysis Patient

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          Abstract

          Hypercalcemia is a common electrolyte disturbance in chronic dialysis patients. Although most causes are easily identified, some are obscure. Tuberculosis, a granulomatous disease associated with hypercalcemia, can appear at anytime while the infection is active. Dialysis-associated tuberculosis is characterized by a higher risk than that in the general population, with a greater chance of extrapulmonary involvement and a high mortality rate. If the presentation of tuberculosis is atypical and its manifestation nonspecific, diagnosis can be delayed, leading to poor patient outcome. Herein, we report a case of tuberculous peritonitis in a hemodialysis patient. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia was noted 8 months before ascites became detectable. Nevertheless, the patient responded well to antituberculous therapy. We conclude that hypercalcemia can be an early sign of tuberculous peritonitis in the absence of other signs and symptoms. Remaining aware of the possibility of tuberculosis and testing for it, physicians can identify tuberculous infection earlier and initiate appropriate therapy in a timely manner.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Tuberculosis in Maintenance Dialysis Patients

          In this investigation, we tried to find the incidence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in dialysis patients previously found only in a small number of cases. We collected the cases of newly diagnosed TB patients in Taiwan during 1997. Simultaneously, all dialysis patients were collected and matched with the TB cases to identify the dialysis patients who had also contracted TB. The annual incidence of the dialysis population was 493.4/100,000, 6.9 times that of the general population (71.1/100,000). The annual incidence for the male dialysis population was 573.3, the incidence was 479.2 for the female dialysis population. The incidence for the general population was 97.1 and 43.7/100,000, respectively. Although the 1-year mortality rate due to TB (1.7 vs. 1.9%, p > 0.05) was similar in both populations, the non-TB mortality was much higher in the dialysis population than that in the general population (25.6 vs. 11.1%, p < 0.05). Finally, the 1-year mortality rate of dialysis patients with TB is 3.3 times higher than that in dialysis patients without TB (27.3 vs. 8.3%, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that uremia modifies the behavior of TB, jeopardizes female and younger dialysis patients, poses a higher risk of extrapulmonary dissemination, and predicts a higher overall mortality.
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            Differences in vitamin D status and calcium intake: Possible explanations for the regional variations in the prevalence of hypercalcemia in tuberculosis

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              Hypercalcemia and elevated calcitriol in a maintenance dialysis patient with tuberculosis

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2002
                December 2002
                07 October 2002
                : 22
                : 5-6
                : 555-559
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, and bDepartment of Pathology, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                Article
                65264 Am J Nephrol 2002;22:555–559
                10.1159/000065264
                12381958
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65264
                Categories
                Case Report

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Hemodialysis, Hypercalcemia, Peritonitis, Tuberculosis

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