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Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

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      Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations.

      Model projections suggest that although increased temperature and decreased soil moisture will act to reduce global crop yields by 2050, the direct fertilization effect of rising carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) will offset these losses. The CO2 fertilization factors used in models to project future yields were derived from enclosure studies conducted approximately 20 years ago. Free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) technology has now facilitated large-scale trials of the major grain crops at elevated [CO2] under fully open-air field conditions. In those trials, elevated [CO2] enhanced yield by approximately 50% less than in enclosure studies. This casts serious doubt on projections that rising [CO2] will fully offset losses due to climate change.
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        Soil warming and carbon-cycle feedbacks to the climate system.

        In a decade-long soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude hardwood forest, we documented changes in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in order to investigate the consequences of these changes for the climate system. Here we show that whereas soil warming accelerates soil organic matter decay and carbon dioxide fluxes to the atmosphere, this response is small and short-lived for a mid-latitude forest, because of the limited size of the labile soil carbon pool. We also show that warming increases the availability of mineral nitrogen to plants. Because plant growth in many mid-latitude forests is nitrogen-limited, warming has the potential to indirectly stimulate enough carbon storage in plants to at least compensate for the carbon losses from soils. Our results challenge assumptions made in some climate models that lead to projections of large long-term releases of soil carbon in response to warming of forest ecosystems.
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          Surface ozone measurements from a global network

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Comptes Rendus Geoscience
            Comptes Rendus Geoscience
            Elsevier BV
            16310713
            October 2007
            October 2007
            : 339
            : 11-12
            : 784-798
            10.1016/j.crte.2007.08.008
            © 2007

            http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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