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      Exploring point-of-care transformation in diabetic care: A quality improvement approach

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          Objective: This quality improvement project evaluated the impact of a point-of-care (POC) HbA1c stat lab intervention and a nurse-assisted expanded visit implemented among patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D) at a community health center in Houston, TX.

          Methods: This was a before-and-after POC intervention among adult patients who received primary care services between 1 July 2014 and 31 December 2014 (baseline visit) and who had at least one 3-month follow-up visit.

          Results: Three hundred eighty-seven patients were included in the study. The majority were <60 years of age (72.1%), female (60.5%), and Hispanic (63%), followed by black (16.5%) and Asian (11.1%). Almost 87% of the patients had uncontrolled T2D (HbA1c >9%) at baseline, with the highest average levels among Hispanic (10.9%) and black (10.7%) patients. There was a significant difference in the HbA1c level before (mean=10.65, SD=1.9291) and after (mean=9.25, SD=1.8187) intervention. The absolute reduction in the level of HbA1c was 1.4% (t=12.834, p<0.001), corresponding to a 13% overall percentage decrease from baseline.

          Conclusion: There is a distinct advantage in using a stat HbA1c lab when combined with shared POC visits to assist patients with uncontrolled T2D in lowering the HbA1c, improving self-management, and reducing long-term costs.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Diabetes prevalence and therapeutic target achievement in the United States, 1999 to 2006.

          Changes in the prevalence, treatment, and management of diabetes in the United States from 1999 to 2006 were studied using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on 17,306 participants aged 20 years or more were analyzed. Glycemic, blood pressure, and cholesterol targets were glycosylated hemoglobin less than 7.0%, blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol less than 100 mg/dL, respectively. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was 6.5% from 1999 to 2002 and 7.8% from 2003 to 2006 (P < .05) and increased significantly in women, non-Hispanic whites, and obese people. Although there were no significant changes in the pattern of antidiabetic treatment, the age-adjusted percentage of people with diagnosed diabetes achieving glycemic and LDL targets increased from 43.1% to 57.1% (P < .05) and from 36.1% to 46.5% (P < .05), respectively. Glycosylated hemoglobin decreased from 7.62% to 7.15% during this period (P < .05). The age-adjusted percentage achieving all 3 targets increased insignificantly from 7.0% to 12.2%. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes increased significantly from 1999 to 2006. The proportion of people with diagnosed diabetes achieving glycemic and LDL targets also increased. However, there is a need to achieve glycemic, blood pressure, and LDL targets simultaneously.
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            The relationship between knowledge of recent HbA1c values and diabetes care understanding and self-management.

            Knowledge of one's actual and target health outcomes (such as HbA(1c) values) is hypothesized to be a prerequisite for effective patient involvement in managing chronic diseases such as diabetes. We examined 1) the frequency and correlates of knowing one's most recent HbA(1c) test result and 2) whether knowing one's HbA(1c) value is associated with a more accurate assessment of diabetes control and better diabetes self-care understanding, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to glycemic control. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a sample of 686 U.S. adults with type 2 diabetes in five health systems who had HbA(1c) checked in the previous 6 months. Independent variables included patient characteristics, health care provider communication, and health system type. We examined bivariate and multivariate associations between each variable and the respondents' knowledge of their last HbA(1c) values and assessed whether knowledge of HbA(1c) was associated with key diabetes care attitudes and behaviors. Of the respondents, 66% reported that they did not know their last HbA(1c) value and only 25% accurately reported that value. In multivariate analyses, more years of formal education and high evaluations of provider thoroughness of communication were independently associated with HbA(1c) knowledge. Respondents who knew their last HbA(1c) value had higher odds of accurately assessing their diabetes control (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.05-2.42) and better reported understanding of their diabetes care (P < 0.001). HbA(1c) knowledge was not associated with respondents' diabetes care self-efficacy or reported self-management behaviors. Respondents who knew their HbA(1c) values reported better diabetes care understanding and assessment of their glycemic control than those who did not. Knowledge of one's HbA(1c) level alone, however, was not sufficient to translate increased understanding of diabetes care into the increased confidence and motivation necessary to improve patients' diabetes self-management. Strategies to provide information to patients must be combined with other behavioral strategies to motivate and help patients effectively manage their diabetes.
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              Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2™): cross-national comparisons on barriers and resources for optimal care--healthcare professional perspective.

              The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study sought cross-national comparisons of perceptions on healthcare provision for benchmarking and sharing of clinical practices to improve diabetes care. In total, 4785 healthcare professionals caring for people with diabetes across 17 countries participated in an online survey designed to assess diabetes healthcare provision, self-management and training. Between 61.4 and 92.9% of healthcare professionals felt that people with diabetes needed to improve various self-management activities; glucose monitoring (range, 29.3-92.1%) had the biggest country difference, with a between-country variance of 20%. The need for a major improvement in diabetes self-management education was reported by 60% (26.4-81.4%) of healthcare professionals, with a 12% between-country variance. Provision of diabetes services differed among countries, with many healthcare professionals indicating that major improvements were needed across a range of areas, including healthcare organization [30.6% (7.4-67.1%)], resources for diabetes prevention [78.8% (60.4-90.5%)], earlier diagnosis and treatment [67.9% (45.0-85.5%)], communication between team members and people with diabetes [56.1% (22.3-85.4%)], specialist nurse availability [63.8% (27.9-90.7%)] and psychological support [62.7% (40.6-79.6%)]. In some countries, up to one third of healthcare professionals reported not having received any formal diabetes training. Societal discrimination against people with diabetes was reported by 32.8% (11.4-79.6%) of participants. This survey has highlighted concerns of healthcare professionals relating to diabetes healthcare provision, self-management and training. Identifying between-country differences in several areas will allow benchmarking and sharing of clinical practices. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

                Author and article information

                Family Medicine and Community Health
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                June 2015
                July 2015
                : 3
                : 2
                : 20-26
                1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHORS: Malvika Juneja, MD and Maria C. Mejia de Grubb, MD, MPH, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 3701 Kirby Drive, Suite 600, Houston, TX 77098, USA, Tel.: +713-798-4735, E-mail: juneja@ 123456bcm.edu , maria.mejiadegrubb@ 123456bcm.edu
                Copyright © 2015 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
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