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      Carvedilol, an Antihypertensive Drug with Antioxidant Properties, Protects against Glycerol-Induced Acute Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The pathogenesis of glycerol-induced myoglobinuric acute renal failure involves, among other causes, ischaemia, vascular congestion and reactive oxygen metabolites. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug with antioxidative potential, in glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats. Methods: Three groups of rats were employed in this study. Group 1 served as control, group 2 was given 50% glycerol (8 ml/kg, i.m.) and group 3 was given glycerol plus carvedilol (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Renal injury was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urea clearance. The oxidative stress was measured by renal malondialdehyde levels, reduced glutathione levels and enzymatic activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Results: Glycerol treatment resulted in marked renal oxidative stress and significantly deranged renal functions. Both of these factors were significantly improved by carvedilol treatment. Carvedilol, by its interaction with Fenton reaction chemistry and radical scavenging activity, protected the kidney against the oxidative stress and resultant renal dysfunction produced by glycerol. Conclusion: Based on these results, this study indicates the protective effect of carvedilol in this rhabdomyolysis-mimicking model.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Biochemical investigation of suspected rhabdomyolysis.

           R Beetham (2000)
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            Carvedilol, a new beta-adrenoceptor antagonist and vasodilator antihypertensive drug, inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils.

            Carvedilol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide (O2-) release from human neutrophils (PMNs) (IC50 = 28 microM) and scavenged O2- generated during dihydroxyfumaric acid (DHF) autooxidation (IC50 = 41 microM). Other beta-blockers, such as celiprolol, labetalol and atenolol, or the antioxidant, 'lazaroid', U74500A had no effect on O2- either released from PMNs or generated during DHF autooxidation. Propranolol, at 0.3 mM, inhibited O2- release from PMNs (73%) but failed to scavenge O2- generated from DHF. The novel free radical-scavenging effect of carvedilol may contribute to the cardioprotective activity of the compound.
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              Reversal of experimental myoglobinuric acute renal failure with bioflavonoids from seeds of grape.

              Rhabdomyolysis may account for about 10% of all cases of acute renal failure (ARF). This study was performed to explore the protective influence of proanthocyanidins from seeds of grape in an experimental model of myoglobinuric ARF. Rats were injected with 50% glycerol (8 mL/kg, im) followed immediately and daily in the next three days by ip proanthocyanidins (20 mg/kg) or saline. After 96 h rats were sacrificed and kidney morphology, kidney cortex peptidase activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were determined. A moderate renal failure was produced by glycerol injection with blood urea of 31.8+/-11.0 vs. 7.68+/-0.24 m mol/L, and serum creatinine of 153. +/-38.2 vs. 39.6+/-9.0 micromol/L, in glycerol-induced ARF vs. control rats, respectively. Rats that received proanthocyanidins in addition to glycerol had significantly lower (p < 0.01) blood urea and serum creatinine levels compared to those receiving glycerol alone. These functional differences between the glycerol and glycerol plus proanthocianidins groups were also confirmed histologically. Kidney cortex dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV) activity was not significantly changed in glycerol-induced ARF, however, markedly increased after proanthocyanidins treatment. Kidney cortex malondialdehyde content was found significantly increased in glycerol-induced ARF over control level, and was markedly reduced by proanthocyanidin treatment. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence for the protective role of proanthocyanidins from seeds of grape in glycerol-induced ARF. The effect is probably due to the antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins and to increased expression of kidney cortex DPP IV with effective degradation of TNF-alpha. This may provide therapeutic opportunities of preventing and/or treating myoglobinuric ARF in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2003
                December 2003
                21 November 2003
                : 23
                : 6
                : 415-421
                Affiliations
                Division of Pharmacology, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
                Article
                74453 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:415–421
                10.1159/000074453
                14573997
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/74453
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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