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      Effects of meteorological factors on the composition of selected fungal spores in the air

      research-article
      ,
      Aerobiologia
      Springer Netherlands
      Fungal spore composition, Meteorological parameters, CCA

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          Abstract

          The aim of the study was to determine functional relationships between composition of air spora and meteorological factors, using multivariate statistical technique: canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Analyses were conducted for the data collected during the 4 year (2007–2010) and, in order to show the dynamics of such relationships, for each year separately. The CCA results indicated that all statistically significant variables accounted for 15.3 % of the total variance in the spore data in the 4 years. The largest amount of the total variance was explained in this period by the mean air temperature (9.2 %). The meteorological factors impacted spore composition differently in different years, when analysis was done for each year separately. The highest values of the total variance in the spore data, explained by the statistically significant variables, were found in 2010 (32.3 %), with the highest contribution of mean air temperature (23.8 %). In that year, the above-mentioned parameter had the lowest value in comparison to other years. Canonical correspondence analysis provides not only a comprehensive assessment of the impact of meteorological factors on specific spore combinations in the air, but also informative graphical presentations of the results, illustrating the correlation between the occurrence of particular spore taxa and meteorological variables.

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          The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level.

          Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores (Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.
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            Fungi as a cause of allergic disease.

            S Gravesen (1979)
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              Surface tension propulsion of fungal spores.

              Most basidiomycete fungi actively eject their spores. The process begins with the condensation of a water droplet at the base of the spore. The fusion of the droplet onto the spore creates a momentum that propels the spore forward. The use of surface tension for spore ejection offers a new paradigm to perform work at small length scales. However, this mechanism of force generation remains poorly understood. To elucidate how fungal spores make effective use of surface tension, we performed a detailed mechanical analysis of the three stages of spore ejection: the transfer of energy from the drop to the spore, the work of fracture required to release the spore from its supporting structure and the kinetic energy of the spore after ejection. High-speed video imaging of spore ejection in Auricularia auricula and Sporobolomyces yeasts revealed that drop coalescence takes place over a short distance ( approximately 5 microm) and energy transfer is completed in less than 4 mus. Based on these observations, we developed an explicit relation for the conversion of surface energy into kinetic energy during the coalescence process. The relation was validated with a simple artificial system and shown to predict the initial spore velocity accurately (predicted velocity: 1.2 m s(-1); observed velocity: 0.8 m s(-1) for A. auricula). Using calibrated microcantilevers, we also demonstrate that the work required to detach the spore from the supporting sterigma represents only a small fraction of the total energy available for spore ejection. Finally, our observations of this unique discharge mechanism reveal a surprising similarity with the mechanics of jumping in animals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +48914441643 , agofr@univ.szczecin.pl
                Journal
                Aerobiologia (Bologna)
                Aerobiologia (Bologna)
                Aerobiologia
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0393-5965
                1573-3025
                12 September 2014
                12 September 2014
                2015
                : 31
                : 1
                : 63-72
                Affiliations
                Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Faculty of Biology, University of Szczecin, Wąska 13 Street, 71-415 Szczecin, Poland
                Article
                9347
                10.1007/s10453-014-9347-1
                4342788
                25750477
                70ed84fc-975f-4e6f-a641-88e2bda5d068
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                History
                : 20 December 2013
                : 30 August 2014
                Categories
                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

                Ecology
                fungal spore composition,meteorological parameters,cca
                Ecology
                fungal spore composition, meteorological parameters, cca

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