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      Reevaluation of Routine Invasive Strategy versus Noninvasive Testing following Uncomplicated ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims: While current guidelines recommend a selective invasive approach after low-risk ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by thrombolysis, based on noninvasive identification of patients with residual or inducible myocardial ischemia, in many instances physicians employ a strategy of routine angiography. The present study was undertaken to reexamine the correlation between noninvasive testing and coronary angiography in patients recovering from uncomplicated STEMI with regard to detection and management of residual infarct artery stenosis and to identify patients with multivessel (MVD) or high-risk coronary disease. Methods: We prospectively performed predischarge exercise testing (ETT) and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) prior to routine predischarge coronary angiography in 83/276 consecutive STEMI patients, who after treatment with initial and early thrombolysis, were defined as low risk by ACC/AHA risk classification. Results: ETT was positive for myocardial ischemia in 11/43 (26%) patients with single-vessel disease (SVD) and 11/22 (50%) patients with MVD, but normal or nondiagnostic in the remainder. MPS revealed significant reversible perfusion defects in 13/40 (32%) patients with SVD and 13/22 (59%) patients with MVD. A selective strategy of ETT followed by MPS for nondiagnostic ETT missed residual infarct-related artery stenosis and/or MVD in 31/81 (38%) of the cohort. Among patients who may not otherwise have been referred for angiography, severe (≧70%) residual stenosis of the infarct-related artery was present in 56% and MVD in 16%. Conclusions: Early predischarge ETT and/or MPS had limited sensitivity for the detection of coronary disease in low-risk post-STEMI patients. The study supports a simpler strategy of routine coronary angiography in most patients after low-risk STEMI.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Comparison of early invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable coronary syndromes treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban.

          There is continued debate as to whether a routine, early invasive strategy is superior to a conservative strategy for the management of unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation. We enrolled 2220 patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who had electrocardiographic evidence of changes in the ST segment or T wave, elevated levels of cardiac markers, a history of coronary artery disease, or all three findings. All patients were treated with aspirin, heparin, and the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban. They were randomly assigned to an early invasive strategy, which included routine catheterization within 4 to 48 hours and revascularization as appropriate, or to a more conservative (selectively invasive) strategy, in which catheterization was performed only if the patient had objective evidence of recurrent ischemia or an abnormal stress test. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome at six months. At six months, the rate of the primary end point was 15.9 percent with use of the early invasive strategy and 19.4 percent with use of the conservative strategy (odds ratio, 0.78; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.97; P=0.025). The rate of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at six months was similarly reduced (7.3 percent vs. 9.5 percent; odds ratio, 0.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 1.00; P<0.05). In patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who were treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban, the use of an early invasive strategy significantly reduced the incidence of major cardiac events. These data support a policy involving broader use of the early inhibition of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in combination with an early invasive strategy in such patients.
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            ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing: summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1997 Exercise Testing Guidelines).

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              ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction--executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to revise the 1999 guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction).

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                May 2006
                11 May 2006
                : 105
                : 4
                : 240-245
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiovascular and bNuclear Medicine, Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center and the Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
                Article
                92256 Cardiology 2006;105:240–245
                10.1159/000092256
                16567943
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 27, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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