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      Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

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          Abstract

          Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

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          Most cited references134

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          Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: an international multi-institutional analysis of prognostic factors and lymph node assessment.

          To identify factors associated with outcome after surgical management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and examine the impact of lymph node (LN) assessment on survival. From an international multi-institutional database, 449 patients who underwent surgery for ICC between 1973 and 2010 were identified. Clinical and pathologic data were evaluated using uni- and multivariate analyses. Median tumor size was 6.5 cm. Most patients had a solitary tumor (73%) and no vascular invasion (69%). Median survival was 27 months, and 5-year survival was 31%. Factors associated with adverse prognosis included positive margin status (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; P < .001), multiple lesions (HR, 1.80; P = .001), and vascular invasion (HR, 1.59; P = .015). Tumor size was not a prognostic factor (HR, 1.03; P = .23). Patients were stratified using the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer T1, T2a, and T2b categories (seventh edition) in a discrete step-wise fashion (P < .001). Lymphadenectomy was performed in 248 patients (55%); 74 of these (30%) had LN metastasis. LN metastasis was associated with worse outcome (median survival: N0, 30 months v N1, 24 months; P = .03). Although patients with no LN metastasis were able to be stratified by tumor number and vascular invasion (N0; P < .001), among patients with N1 disease, multiple tumors and vascular invasion, either alone or together, failed to discriminate patients into discrete prognostic groups (P = .34). Although tumor size provides no prognostic information, tumor number, vascular invasion, and LN metastasis were associated with survival. N1 status adversely affected overall survival and also influenced the relative effect of tumor number and vascular invasion on prognosis. Lymphadenectomy should be strongly considered for ICC, because up to 30% of patients will have LN metastasis.
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            Functional and genetic deconstruction of the cellular origin in liver cancer.

            During the past decade, research on primary liver cancers has particularly highlighted the uncommon plasticity of differentiated parenchymal liver cells (that is, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (also known as biliary epithelial cells)), the role of liver progenitor cells in malignant transformation, the importance of the tumour microenvironment and the molecular complexity of liver tumours. Whereas other reviews have focused on the landscape of genetic alterations that promote development and progression of primary liver cancers and the role of the tumour microenvironment, the crucial importance of the cellular origin of liver cancer has been much less explored. Therefore, in this Review, we emphasize the importance and complexity of the cellular origin in tumour initiation and progression, and attempt to integrate this aspect with recent discoveries in tumour genomics and the contribution of the disrupted hepatic microenvironment to liver carcinogenesis.
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              Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) during maturation.

              Different fractions of sea buckthorn fruits were investigated for antioxidant activity and its relationship to different phytonutrients. Capacity to scavenge radicals of the crude extract, like the phenolic and ascorbate extracts, decreased significantly with increased maturation. The changes were strongly correlated with the content of total phenolics and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant capacity of the lipophilic extract increased significantly and corresponded to the increase in total carotenoids. The phenolic fractions made a major contribution to the total antioxidant capacity due to the high content of total phenolics. The lipophilic fractions were most effective if the comparison was based on the ratio between antioxidant capacity and content of antioxidants. The crude extract of fruits showed the highest inhibitory effect in both 2,2-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) and ascorbate-iron induced lipid peroxidations. The aqueous and ascorbate-free extracts showed higher inhibition in the AMVN assay, but lower inhibition in ascorbate-iron induced peroxidation, than the lipophilic extract.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                10 March 2016
                March 2016
                : 8
                : 3
                : 156
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China; zhouyuesysu@ 123456163.com (Y.Z.); saferide@ 123456126.com (Y.L.); zwky740359@ 123456163.com (T.Z.); zhengj37@ 123456mail2.sysu.edu.cn (J.Z.)
                [2 ]South China Sea Bioresource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
                [3 ]School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; lishasl0308@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lihuabin@ 123456mail.sysu.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-20-873-323-91
                Article
                nutrients-08-00156
                10.3390/nu8030156
                4808884
                26978396
                71030064-3e5d-4063-ae8c-b15364efc77c
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 11 January 2016
                : 01 March 2016
                Categories
                Review

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                liver cancer,fruit,vegetable,spice,anticancer
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                liver cancer, fruit, vegetable, spice, anticancer

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