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      Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells

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          Abstract

          Stem cells, which are clonogenic cells with self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties, have the potential to replace or repair damaged tissue. We have directly isolated clonogenic human central nervous system stem cells (hCNS-SC) from fresh human fetal brain tissue, using antibodies to cell surface markers and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. These hCNS-SC are phenotypically 5F3 (CD133)(+), 5E12(+), CD34(-), CD45(-), and CD24(-/lo). Single CD133(+) CD34(-) CD45(-) sorted cells initiated neurosphere cultures, and the progeny of clonogenic cells could differentiate into both neurons and glial cells. Single cells from neurosphere cultures initiated from CD133(+) CD34(-) CD45(-) cells were again replated as single cells and were able to reestablish neurosphere cultures, demonstrating the self-renewal potential of this highly enriched population. Upon transplantation into brains of immunodeficient neonatal mice, the sorted/expanded hCNS-SC showed potent engraftment, proliferation, migration, and neural differentiation.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Mammalian neural stem cells.

           Brian F Gage (2000)
          Neural stem cells exist not only in the developing mammalian nervous system but also in the adult nervous system of all mammalian organisms, including humans. Neural stem cells can also be derived from more primitive embryonic stem cells. The location of the adult stem cells and the brain regions to which their progeny migrate in order to differentiate remain unresolved, although the number of viable locations is limited in the adult. The mechanisms that regulate endogenous stem cells are poorly understood. Potential uses of stem cells in repair include transplantation to repair missing cells and the activation of endogenous cells to provide "self-repair. " Before the full potential of neural stem cells can be realized, we need to learn what controls their proliferation, as well as the various pathways of differentiation available to their daughter cells.
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            A clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages.

            Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to progeny that progressively lose self-renewal capacity and become restricted to one lineage. The points at which haematopoietic stem cell-derived progenitors commit to each of the various lineages remain mostly unknown. We have identified a clonogenic common lymphoid progenitor that can differentiate into T, B and natural killer cells but not myeloid cells. Here we report the prospective identification, purification and characterization, using cell-surface markers and flow cytometry, of a complementary clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages. Common myeloid progenitors give rise to either megakaryocyte/erythrocyte or granulocyte/macrophage progenitors. Purified progenitors were used to provide a first-pass expression profile of various haematopoiesis-related genes. We propose that the common lymphoid progenitor and common myeloid progenitor populations reflect the earliest branch points between the lymphoid and myeloid lineages, and that the commitment of common myeloid progenitors to either the megakaryocyte/erythrocyte or the granulocyte/macrophage lineages are mutually exclusive events.
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              Identification of clonogenic common lymphoid progenitors in mouse bone marrow.

              The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin(-)IL-7R(+)Thy-1(-)Sca-1loc-Kit(lo) population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely lacked myeloid differentiation potential either in vivo or in vitro. A single Lin(-)IL-7R(+)Thy-1(-)Sca-1loc-Kit(lo) cell could generate at least both T and B cells. These data provide direct evidence for the existence of common lymphoid progenitors in sites of early hematopoiesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                December 19 2000
                December 19 2000
                : 97
                : 26
                : 14720-14725
                10.1073/pnas.97.26.14720
                18985
                11121071
                © 2000
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