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      The impact of 4-Poster deer self-treatment devices at three locations in Maryland.

      Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)

      Acaricides, administration & dosage, Animal Feed, Animals, Arachnid Vectors, Deer, parasitology, Humans, Insecticides, Linear Models, Lyme Disease, prevention & control, Maryland, Population Density, Tick Control, methods, statistics & numerical data, Tick Infestations, veterinary, Ticks, growth & development, Toluidines, Zea mays

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          From 1998-2002 twenty-five deer self-treatment devices (4-Posters), using 2% amitraz, were operated at three locations in Maryland to determine their effectiveness in controlling blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Each treatment site was approximately 518 ha and paired with a similar site lacking 4-Posters. Locations varied in deer density, tick abundance, and land use. Flagging for host-seeking ticks showed declines in tick populations at all treatment sites compared to control sites by the third year. By 2002, control of I. scapularis nymphs attributable to the 4-Poster intervention at the three sites was 69.0%, 75.8%, and 80%. Control of A. americanum nymphs at the two sites where they occurred was 99.5% and 95.3%. In 2003, the first posttreatment year, control of I. scapularis remained around 2001-2002 levels, but by 2004, an upward trend in nymphal numbers was detectable. Populations of A. americanum showed no increase posttreatment. These results demonstrate that control of these tick species is locally possible with 4-Poster intervention.

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