13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Directed transport of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles enables platelet-mediated innate immune response

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The innate immune response to bacterial infections requires the interaction of neutrophils and platelets. Here, we show that a multistep reciprocal crosstalk exists between these two cell types, ultimately facilitating neutrophil influx into the lung to eliminate infections. Activated platelets adhere to intravascular neutrophils through P-selectin/P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)-mediated binding, a primary interaction that allows platelets glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα)-induced generation of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (EV). EV production is directed by exocytosis and allows shuttling of arachidonic acid into platelets. EVs are then specifically internalized into platelets in a Mac1-dependent fashion, and relocated into intracellular compartments enriched in cyclooxygenase1 (Cox1), an enzyme processing arachidonic acid to synthesize thromboxane A 2 (TxA 2). Finally, platelet-derived-TxA 2 elicits a full neutrophil response by inducing the endothelial expression of ICAM-1, intravascular crawling, and extravasation. We conclude that critical substrate–enzyme pairs are compartmentalized in neutrophils and platelets during steady state limiting non-specific inflammation, but bacterial infection triggers regulated EV shuttling resulting in robust inflammation and pathogen clearance.

          Abstract

          Interaction between platelets and neutrophils promotes neutrophil activation. Here the authors show that neutrophils initiate the cross-talk with platelets by shuttling arachidonic acid via extracellular vesicles, which platelets convert to thromboxane A 2 that then elicits neutrophil activation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references43

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Platelet TLR4 activates neutrophil extracellular traps to ensnare bacteria in septic blood.

          It has been known for many years that neutrophils and platelets participate in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis, but the inter-relationship between these players is completely unknown. We report several cellular events that led to enhanced trapping of bacteria in blood vessels: platelet TLR4 detected TLR4 ligands in blood and induced platelet binding to adherent neutrophils. This led to robust neutrophil activation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Plasma from severely septic humans also induced TLR4-dependent platelet-neutrophil interactions, leading to the production of NETs. The NETs retained their integrity under flow conditions and ensnared bacteria within the vasculature. The entire event occurred primarily in the liver sinusoids and pulmonary capillaries, where NETs have the greatest capacity for bacterial trapping. We propose that platelet TLR4 is a threshold switch for this new bacterial trapping mechanism in severe sepsis.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            High Levels of Exosomes Expressing CD63 and Caveolin-1 in Plasma of Melanoma Patients

            Background Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest) to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b) and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1). Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90) and healthy donors (n = 58). Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504±315) or caveolin-1 (619±310) were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223±125 and 228±102, respectively). While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43%) the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%). Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. Conclusions/Significance We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Neutrophils scan for activated platelets to initiate inflammation.

              Immune and inflammatory responses require leukocytes to migrate within and through the vasculature, a process that is facilitated by their capacity to switch to a polarized morphology with an asymmetric distribution of receptors. We report that neutrophil polarization within activated venules served to organize a protruding domain that engaged activated platelets present in the bloodstream. The selectin ligand PSGL-1 transduced signals emanating from these interactions, resulting in the redistribution of receptors that drive neutrophil migration. Consequently, neutrophils unable to polarize or to transduce signals through PSGL-1 displayed aberrant crawling, and blockade of this domain protected mice against thromboinflammatory injury. These results reveal that recruited neutrophils scan for activated platelets, and they suggest that the neutrophils' bipolarity allows the integration of signals present at both the endothelium and the circulation before inflammation proceeds. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-1723
                15 November 2016
                2016
                : 7
                : 13464
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University Hospital Münster , 48149 Münster, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, University of California , San Francisco, California 94143, USA
                [3 ]Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention, Ludwig-Maximilians-University , 80336 Munich, Germany
                [4 ]Area of Cell and Developmental Biology, CNIC , 28029 Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5513-555X
                Article
                ncomms13464
                10.1038/ncomms13464
                5116072
                27845343
                71075e67-7ed9-4296-a8da-f6389f29055a
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 28 February 2016
                : 06 October 2016
                Categories
                Article

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article