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      Post-transcriptional and post-translational regulations of drought and heat response in plants: a spider’s web of mechanisms

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          Abstract

          Drought and heat tolerance are complex quantitative traits. Moreover, the adaptive significance of some stress-related traits is more related to plant survival than to agronomic performance. A web of regulatory mechanisms fine-tunes the expression of stress-related traits and integrates both environmental and developmental signals. Both post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications contribute substantially to this network with a pivotal regulatory function of the transcriptional changes related to cellular and plant stress response. Alternative splicing and RNA-mediated silencing control the amount of specific transcripts, while ubiquitin and SUMO modify activity, sub-cellular localization and half-life of proteins. Interactions across these modification mechanisms ensure temporally and spatially appropriate patterns of downstream-gene expression. For key molecular components of these regulatory mechanisms, natural genetic diversity exists among genotypes with different behavior in terms of stress tolerance, with effects upon the expression of adaptive morphological and/or physiological target traits.

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          Most cited references 126

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          A QTL for rice grain width and weight encodes a previously unknown RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase.

           Min Shi,  Zhen Zhu,  Xian Song (2007)
          Grain weight is one of the most important components of grain yield and is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) derived from natural variations in crops. However, the molecular roles of QTLs in the regulation of grain weight have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of GW2, a new QTL that controls rice grain width and weight. Our data show that GW2 encodes a previously unknown RING-type protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which is known to function in the degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Loss of GW2 function increased cell numbers, resulting in a larger (wider) spikelet hull, and it accelerated the grain milk filling rate, resulting in enhanced grain width, weight and yield. Our results suggest that GW2 negatively regulates cell division by targeting its substrate(s) to proteasomes for regulated proteolysis. The functional characterization of GW2 provides insight into the mechanism of seed development and is a potential tool for improving grain yield in crops.
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            Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

            The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops.
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              The ubiquitin-26S proteasome system at the nexus of plant biology.

              Plants, like other eukaryotes, rely on proteolysis to control the abundance of key regulatory proteins and enzymes. Strikingly, genome-wide studies have revealed that the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS) in particular is an exceedingly large and complex route for protein removal, occupying nearly 6% of the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome. But why is the UPS so pervasive in plants? Data accumulated over the past few years now show that it targets numerous intracellular regulators that have central roles in hormone signalling, the regulation of chromatin structure and transcription, tailoring morphogenesis, responses to environmental challenges, self recognition and battling pathogens.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                11 February 2015
                2015
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Genomics Research Centre, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Fiorenzuola d’Arda , Piacenza, Italy
                [2] 2Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ilam University , Ilam, Iran
                [3] 3Cereal Research Centre, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura , Foggia, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mariana Benítez, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico

                Reviewed by: David M. Rhoads, California State University at San Bernardino, USA; Jorge N. Sotelo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico

                *Correspondence: Elisabetta Mazzucotelli, Genomics Research Centre, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Via San Protaso 302, Fiorenzuola d’Arda 29017, Piacenza, Italy e-mail: elisabetta.mazzucotelli@ 123456entecra.it

                This article was submitted to Plant Genetics and Genomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2015.00057
                4324062
                7118fbac-a585-471c-8a6c-ec30725acac4
                Copyright © 2015 Guerra, Crosatti, Khoshro, Mastrangelo, Mica and Mazzucotelli.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 147, Pages: 14, Words: 12984
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Review Article

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