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      How many bird and mammal extinctions has recent conservation action prevented?

      1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 7 , 1 , 9 , 2 , 10 , 7 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 17 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 20 , 29 , 26 , 30 , 21 , 31 , 11 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 7 , 41 , 26 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 17 , 20 , 23 , 7 , 45
      Conservation Letters

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          Pervasive human-driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change

          The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost of unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, distinctness of local ecological communities, abundance and number of wild species, and the number of local domesticated varieties. Such changes reduce vital benefits that people receive from nature and threaten the quality of life of future generations. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature’s benefits are unequally distributed. The fabric of life on which we all depend—nature and its contributions to people—is unravelling rapidly. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action. Such action must begin immediately, however, and address the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature’s deterioration.
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            Consensus measurement in Delphi studies

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              A standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: unified classifications of threats and actions.

              An essential foundation of any science is a standard lexicon. Any given conservation project can be described in terms of the biodiversity targets, direct threats, contributing factors at the project site, and the conservation actions that the project team is employing to change the situation. These common elements can be linked in a causal chain, which represents a theory of change about how the conservation actions are intended to bring about desired project outcomes. If project teams want to describe and share their work and learn from one another, they need a standard and precise lexicon to specifically describe each node along this chain. To date, there have been several independent efforts to develop standard classifications for the direct threats that affect biodiversity and the conservation actions required to counteract these threats. Recognizing that it is far more effective to have only one accepted global scheme, we merged these separate efforts into unified classifications of threats and actions, which we present here. Each classification is a hierarchical listing of terms and associated definitions. The classifications are comprehensive and exclusive at the upper levels of the hierarchy, expandable at the lower levels, and simple, consistent, and scalable at all levels. We tested these classifications by applying them post hoc to 1191 threatened bird species and 737 conservation projects. Almost all threats and actions could be assigned to the new classification systems, save for some cases lacking detailed information. Furthermore, the new classification systems provided an improved way of analyzing and comparing information across projects when compared with earlier systems. We believe that widespread adoption of these classifications will help practitioners more systematically identify threats and appropriate actions, managers to more efficiently set priorities and allocate resources, and most important, facilitate cross-project learning and the development of a systematic science of conservation.

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                Conservation Letters
                January 2021
                September 09 2020
                January 2021
                : 14
                : 1
                [1 ]School of Natural and Environmental Sciences Newcastle University Newcastle upon Tyne UK
                [2 ]Global Mammal Assessment Program, Department of Biology and Biotechnologies Sapienza University of Rome Rome Italy
                [3 ]IUCN Gland Switzerland
                [4 ]World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) University of The Philippines Los Baños Laguna Philippines
                [5 ]Institute for Marine & Antarctic Studies University of Tasmania Hobart Tasmania Australia
                [6 ]Imperial College London London UK
                [7 ]BirdLife International Cambridge UK
                [8 ]Zoological Society of London London UK
                [9 ]CEFE Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Univ. Paul Valéry Montpellier 3 Montpellier France
                [10 ]Global Species Programme IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Cambridge UK
                [11 ]Grupo de Ecología y Conservación de Islas, A.C. Ensenada Baja California, Mexico
                [12 ]Department of Integrated Sciences University of Huelva Huelva Spain
                [13 ]South African National Biodiversity Institute Pretoria South Africa
                [14 ]Mammal Research Institute University of Pretoria Pretoria South Africa
                [15 ]The Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust UK
                [16 ]School of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Sydney Sydney Australia
                [17 ]Threatened Species Recovery Hub National Environmental Science Program Brisbane Australia
                [18 ]Charles Darwin Research Station Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Ecuador
                [19 ]School of Biological Sciences University of Queensland Brisbane Australia
                [20 ]Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods Charles Darwin University Casuarina Australia
                [21 ]Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation University of Kent Canterbury UK
                [22 ]School of Natural Sciences and ARC Centre for Australian Biodiversity & Heritage University of Tasmania Tasmania Australia
                [23 ]Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Channel Islands UK
                [24 ]Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Fort Collins Colorado
                [25 ]Reston Virginia
                [26 ]Department of Natural Sciences Manchester Metropolitan University Manchester UK
                [27 ]Cornell Lab of Ornithology Cornell University Ithaca New York
                [28 ]Department of Biology, Terrestrial Ecology Unit Ghent University Ghent Belgium
                [29 ]Wildlife Conservation Society Phnom Penh Cambodia
                [30 ]IUCN Species Survival Commission Gland Switzerland
                [31 ]Borneo Futures Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei Darussalam
                [32 ]Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C. La Paz Baja California, Mexico
                [33 ]Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz,” Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo Brazil
                [34 ]The Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Department of Environment Land Water and Planning Heidelberg Victoria Australia
                [35 ]School of BioSciences University of Melbourne Parkville Victoria Australia
                [36 ]Department of Ecology and Territory Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Bogotá Colombia
                [37 ]Botanic Gardens Conservation International Richmond UK
                [38 ]Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Texas A&M University College Station Texas
                [39 ]Global Wildlife Conservation Austin Texas
                [40 ]Endangered Wildlife Trust Johannesburg South Africa
                [41 ]Rasmussen Family Foundation Santa Clara Utah
                [42 ]Departamento de Ecología de la Biodiversidad, Instituto de Ecología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Mexico City Mexico
                [43 ]International Institute for Applied System Analysis Laxenburg Austria
                [44 ]Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research University College London London UK
                [45 ]Department of Zoology University of Cambridge Cambridge UK
                © 2021





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