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      Resistência a antimicrobianos em Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite em bovinos leiteiros de Minas Gerais, Brasil Translated title: Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitis in dairy herds from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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          Abstract

          Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) destaca-se como um dos agentes etiológicos mais frequentes da mastite bovina, que causa os maiores prejuízos econômicos à pecuária leiteira brasileira. Visando avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade deste agente aos antimicrobianos, 352 isolados provenientes de 35 rebanhos leiteiros localizados em Minas Gerais foram submetidos a testes de antibiograma, utilizando-se a técnica de difusão em disco. Nitrofurantoína, bem como as associações de neomicina, bacitracina e tetraciclina (NBT) e penicilina, nafcilina e dihidroestreptomicina (PND), apresentaram 100% de eficiência in vitro. Foram verificados baixos índices de resistência no grupo das cefalosporinas, com valores de 0, 0,28 e 0,40% para cefquimona, cefalotina e ceftiofur, respectivamente. Entre os aminoglicosídeos, observou-se 1,69% de resistência para gentamicina e 3,35% para a neomicina. O maior índice de resistência foi observado para polimixina B (82%), seguido pelos betalactâmicos, ampicilina e penicilina, com índices de resistência de 80,92 e 80,45%, respectivamente. Níveis intermediários de resistência foram observados para tetraciclina, lincomicina, cefoperazona e sulfazotrim. Entre os isolados testados, 65 (18,15%), oriundos de 24 dentre os 35 rebanhos estudados, apresentaram multirresistência (índice MAR ≥ 0,2). Os resultados apontaram grande variação nos perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos, assim como a ocorrência de múltipla resistência entre algumas cepas estudadas, salientando a necessidade de testes de antibiograma para a escolha dos antimicrobianos mais adequados para o tratamento ou prevenção de mastite causada por S. aureus.

          Translated abstract

          Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) stands out as one of the most common etiological agents of bovine mastitis, currently causing major economic losses to dairy farming. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of this micro-organism to antimicrobials, 352 isolates from 35 dairy herds located in the state of Minas Gerais were submitted to antibiogram tests, using the disc diffusion technique. Nitrofurantoin and the Associations of neomycin, bacitracin and tetracycline (NBT), as well as penicillin, nafcillin and dihydrostreptomycin (PND), showed 100% efficiency in vitro. There were low resistance rates in the group of cephalosporins, with values of 0, 0.28 and 0.40% for cefquimona, cephalothin, and ceftiofur, respectively. Among the aminoglycosides, there was 1.69% resistance to gentamicin and 3.35% for neomycin. The highest resistance was observed for polymyxin B (82%), followed by betalactams, ampicillin and penicillin, with resistance rates of 80.92 and 80.45%, respectively. Moderate levels of resistance were observed for tetracycline, lincomycin, cefoperazone and sulfazotrim. Among the tested isolates, 65 (18.15%), coming from 24 of the 35 herds studied, showed multidrug resistance (MAR index ≥ 0.2). The results pointed out to high variation in antimicrobial resistance profiles and the occcurrence of multidrug resistance among some studied strains, highlighting the importance of antibiogram tests for the choice of an appropriate drug to be used for the treatment or prevention of mastitis caused by S. aureus.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk sources of fecal contamination of foods.

           P Krumperman (1983)
          Escherichia coli isolates taken from environments considered to have low and high enteric disease potential for humans were screened against 12 antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among the isolates of these environments. It was determined that multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli organisms exist in large numbers within the major reservoirs of enteric diseases for humans while existing in comparatively low numbers elsewhere. These differences provide a method for distinguishing high-risk contamination of foods by indexing the frequency with which multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli organisms occur among isolates taken from a sample.
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              Bovine mastitis: an evolving disease.

              Mastitis remains a major challenge to the worldwide dairy industry despite the widespread implementation of mastitis control strategies. The last forty years have seen a dramatic decrease in clinical mastitis incidence but this has been accompanied by a change in the relative and absolute importance of different pathogens. Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis are now the two most common causes of bovine mastitis and are an increasing problem in low somatic cell count herds. This paper reviews the changes in incidence and pattern of mastitis in the UK over the last four decades and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. It focuses in particular on apparent changes in the behaviour of E. coli and its ability to cause persistent intramammary infection; which may be as a result of bacterial adaptation or the unmasking of previously unrecognized patterns of pathogenesis. The prospects for novel approaches to mastitis control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing the industry.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                aib
                Arquivos do Instituto Biológico
                Arq. Inst. Biol.
                Instituto Biológico (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0020-3653
                1808-1657
                September 2013
                : 80
                : 3
                : 297-302
                Affiliations
                Belo Horizonte MG orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais orgdiv1Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva Brazil
                Lavras MG orgnameUniversidade Federal de Lavras orgdiv1Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Brazil
                Article
                S1808-16572013000300006 S1808-1657(13)08000300006
                10.1590/S1808-16572013000300006

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 6
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