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      Spectrum of viral infections in patients with cystic fibrosis

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          Abstract

          This review explores the extensive influence of viral infections leading to chronic deterioration of lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The mechanisms how viral agents affect the pathogenesis as well as the inflammatory and immune response of CF are discussed. Viral infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract due to viruses in CF patients and methods for diagnosis of respiratory viruses are described in detail. The importance of respiratory and non-respiratory viral agents for the pathogenesis, especially for the exacerbation of bacterial lower respiratory tract infections and course of CF, is stressed, especially emphasizing respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, rhinovirus, and human herpes viruses. Possible harmful effects of further viruses like adenovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenzavirus on the lung function of CF patients are discussed. The potential use of adenovirus-based vectors for somatic gene therapy is mentioned.

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          Most cited references 87

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          Comparison of real-time PCR assays with fluorescent-antibody assays for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children.

          Conventional fluorescent-antibody (FA) methods were compared to real-time PCR assays for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus type A (FluA), parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3 (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV3), human metapneumovirus (MPV), and adenovirus (AdV) in 1,138 specimens from children with respiratory illnesses collected over a 1-year period. At least one virus was detected in 436 (38.3%) specimens by FA and in 608 (53.4%) specimens by PCR (P<0.001). Specimen quality was inadequate for FA in 52 (4.6%) specimens; 13 of these (25%) were positive by PCR. In contrast, 18 (1.6%) specimens could not be analyzed by PCR; 1 of these was positive by FA. The number of specimens positive only by PCR among specimens positive by PCR and/or FA was 18 (7.0%) of 257 for RSV, 18 (13.4%) of 134 for FluA, 25 (64.1%) of 39 for PIV1, 8 (88.9%) of 9 for PIV2, 17 (30.1%) of 55 for PIV3, and 101 (76.5%) of 132 for AdV. MPV was detected in 6.6% of all specimens and in 9.5% of the 702 specimens negative by FA. The mean number of virus copies per milliliter in specimens positive by both PCR and FA was significantly higher, at 6.7x10(7), than that in specimens positive only by PCR, at 4.1x10(4) (P<0.001). The PCR assays were significantly more sensitive than FA assays for detecting respiratory viruses, especially parainfluenza virus and adenovirus. Use of real-time PCR to identify viral respiratory pathogens in children will lead to improved diagnosis of respiratory illness.
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            Real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection and monitoring of pathogenic human viruses in immunosuppressed pediatric patients.

            A panel of 23 real-time PCR assays based on TaqMan technology has been developed for the detection and monitoring of 16 different viruses and virus families including human polyomaviruses BK virus and JC virus, human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, human adenoviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus B19, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 3, enteroviruses, and respiratory syncytial virus. The test systems presented have a broad dynamic range and display high sensitivity, reproducibility, and specificity. Moreover, the assays allow precise quantification of viral load in a variety of clinical specimens. The ability to use uniform PCR conditions for all assays permits simultaneous processing and detection of many different viruses, thus economizing the diagnostic work. Our observations based on more than 50,000 assays reveal the potential of the real-time PCR tests to facilitate early diagnosis of infection and to monitor the kinetics of viral proliferation and the response to treatment. We demonstrate that, in immunosuppressed patients with invasive virus infections, surveillance by the assays described may permit detection of increasing viral load several days to weeks prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. In virus infections for which specific treatment is available, the quantitative PCR assays presented provide reliable diagnostic tools for timely initiation of appropriate therapy and for rapid assessment of the efficacy of antiviral treatment strategies.
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              The role of respiratory viruses in cystic fibrosis

              Background Previous studies have suggested a role played by respiratory viruses in the exacerbation of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the impact of respiratory viruses could have been underestimated because of the low detection rate by conventional laboratory methods. Methods Children with CF had nasal swabs and sputum samples obtained on a routine basis and when they developed respiratory exacerbations. Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) was used to detect respiratory viruses from nasal swabs. The definition of a respiratory exacerbation was when the symptom score totalled to 4 or more, or if the peak expiratory flow fell by more than 50 l/min from the child's usual best value, or if the parent subjectively felt that the child was developing a cold. Results 71 patients had 165 reported episodes of respiratory exacerbations. 138 exacerbation samples were obtained of which 63 (46%) were positive for respiratory viruses. In contrast, 23 of 136 asymptomatic nasal swabs (16.9%) were positive for respiratory viruses. There was significantly more viruses being detected during respiratory exacerbations, in particular influenza A, influenza B and rhinovirus (p < 0.05). Upper respiratory symptoms significantly correlated with positive respiratory viral detection (p < 0.05). This study also showed that viral respiratory exacerbations in CF could be independent from bacterial infections. Conclusions Respiratory viruses are associated with exacerbations in CF and upper respiratory symptoms are strong predictors for their presence. ‘Real-time’ NASBA has a rapid turn-around time and has the potential to aid clinical decision making, such as the use of anti-virals and administration of antibiotics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 September 2012
                : 2
                : 3
                : 161-175
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Fachbereich Tropenmedizin am Bernhard-Nocht-Institut, Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
                [ 2 ] Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Virologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Rostock, Rostock, Germany
                [ 3 ] Praxis Dr. Jungblut, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
                [ 4 ] Abteilung für Pneumologie, Deutsche Klinik für Diagnostik (DKD), Wiesbaden, Germany
                [ 5 ] Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
                [ 6 ] Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075, Göttingen, Germany
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ] +49-551-39-5758, +49-551-39-5861, azautne@ 123456gwdg.de
                Article
                1
                10.1556/EuJMI.2.2012.3.1
                3962751
                24688762
                Categories
                Review Articles

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