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      Effects of Hypoxia and Thyroid Hormone on mRNA Levels and Activity of Phosphoglycerate Mutase in Rabbit Tissues

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          Abstract

          Aim: In the present work, we studied the effects of hypoxia and triiodothyronine (T<sub>3</sub>) on phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) activity and expression in rabbit liver, brain, and skeletal muscle under in vivo conditions. Methods: Hypoxia was induced in a methacrylate cage with a mixture of 90% nitrogen and 10% oxygen. Hyperthyroidism was induced daily by T<sub>3</sub> injection (250 µg/kg). Results: Hypoxia increases the PGAM activity in liver and brain, tissues which possess type PGAM-BB isozyme, but does not affect the PGAM activity in muscle which possesses type PGAM-MM isozyme. T<sub>3</sub> administration increases the PGAM activity in muscle and liver, but does not affect the enzyme activity in the brain. In all cases, the activity changes in parallel with those of PGAM mRNA levels. Conclusion: The tissue-specific effects of hypoxia and T<sub>3</sub> could be explained by the tissue-specific distribution of both PGAM isozyme and T<sub>3</sub> receptors.

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          Most cited references 8

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          The mechanism of action of thyroid hormones.

           J. Zhang,  Jason Lazar (1999)
          Thyroid hormone is essential for normal development, differentiation, and metabolic balance. Thyroid hormone action is mediated by multiple thyroid hormone receptor isoforms derived from two distinct genes. The thyroid hormone receptors belong to a nuclear receptor superfamily that also includes receptors for other small lipophilic hormones. Thyroid hormone receptors function by binding to specific thyroid hormone-responsive sequences in promoters of target genes and by regulating transcription. Thyroid hormone receptors often form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors. Heterodimerization is regulated through distinct mechanisms that together determine the specificity and flexibility of the sequence recognition. Amino-terminal regions appear to modulate thyroid hormone receptor function in an isoform-dependent manner. Unliganded thyroid hormone receptor represses transcription through recruitment of a corepressor complex, which also includes Sin3A and histone deacetylase. Ligand binding alters the conformation of the thyroid hormone receptor in such a way as to release the corepressor complex and recruit a coactivator complex that includes multiple histone acetyltransferases, including a steroid receptor family coactivator, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor (PCAF), and CREB binding protein (CBP). The existence of histone-modifying activities in the transcriptional regulatory complexes indicates an important role of chromatin structure. Stoichiometric, structural, and sequence-specific rules for coregulator interaction are beginning to be understood, as are aspects of the tissue specificity of hormone action. Moreover, knockout studies suggest that the products of two thyroid hormone receptor genes mediate distinct functions in vivo. The increased understanding of the structure and function of thyroid hormone receptors and their interacting proteins has markedly clarified the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action.
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            Cellular mechanism of oxygen sensing.

            O2 sensing is a fundamental biological process necessary for adaptation of living organisms to variable habitats and physiological situations. Cellular responses to hypoxia can be acute or chronic. Acute responses rely mainly on O2-regulated ion channels, which mediate adaptive changes in cell excitability, contractility, and secretory activity. Chronic responses depend on the modulation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors, which determine the expression of numerous genes encoding enzymes, transporters and growth factors. O2-regulated ion channels and transcription factors are part of a widely operating signaling system that helps provide sufficient O2 to the tissues and protect the cells against damage due to O2 deficiency. Despite recent advances in the molecular characterization of O2-regulated ion channels and hypoxia-inducible factors, several unanswered questions remain regarding the nature of the O2 sensor molecules and the mechanisms of interaction between the sensors and the effectors. Current models of O2 sensing are based on either a heme protein capable of reversibly binding O2 or the production of oxygen reactive species by NAD(P)H oxidases and mitochondria. Complete molecular characterization of the hypoxia signaling pathways will help elucidate the differential sensitivity to hypoxia of the various cell types and the gradation of the cellular responses to variable levels of PO2. A deeper understanding of the cellular mechanisms of O2 sensing will facilitate the development of new pharmacological tools effective in the treatment of diseases such as stroke or myocardial ischemia caused by localized deficits of O2.
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              The molecular basis of thyroid hormone action.

               David A Brent (1994)
              Progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of a number of clinical manifestations of thyroid disease, yet many questions remain. Why are there two thyroid hormone-receptor genes? Is the function of each of the two receptors indeed unique? How T3 receptors interact with other nuclear proteins and DNA-binding sites and how these interactions are influenced by T3 is incompletely understood. The developmental regulatory role of T3 receptor alpha 1 and its non-T3-binding alpha 2 variant needs to be defined. Most T3-regulated processes, especially those related to metabolism, muscle contraction, and brain development, function in concert with a number of other regulatory factors. The therapeutic applications of knowledge gained about the basic mechanisms of thyroid hormone action should ultimately extend beyond thyroid disease to processes regulated or influenced by T3; these include cardiac function, lipid metabolism, pituitary hormone secretion, and neural development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2003
                2003
                13 January 2003
                : 59
                : 1
                : 16-20
                Affiliations
                Unitat de Bioquímica, Departament de Ciéncies Fisiològiques I, Institut d`Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
                Article
                67934 Horm Res 2003;59:16–20
                10.1159/000067934
                12566730
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 33, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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