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      Establishment of Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a Primary Pest of Corn in the Great Lakes Region

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 3

      Journal of Economic Entomology

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm

          Background Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are planted on millions of hectares annually, reducing the use of conventional insecticides and suppressing pests. However, the evolution of resistance could cut short these benefits. A primary pest targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Methodology/Principal Findings We report that fields identified by farmers as having severe rootworm feeding injury to Bt maize contained populations of western corn rootworm that displayed significantly higher survival on Cry3Bb1 maize in laboratory bioassays than did western corn rootworm from fields not associated with such feeding injury. In all cases, fields experiencing severe rootworm feeding contained Cry3Bb1 maize. Interviews with farmers indicated that Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in those fields for at least three consecutive years. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of years Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in a field and the survival of rootworm populations on Cry3Bb1 maize in bioassays. However, there was no significant correlation among populations for survival on Cry34/35Ab1 maize and Cry3Bb1 maize, suggesting a lack of cross resistance between these Bt toxins. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of field-evolved resistance to a Bt toxin by the western corn rootworm and by any species of Coleoptera. Insufficient planting of refuges and non-recessive inheritance of resistance may have contributed to resistance. These results suggest that improvements in resistance management and a more integrated approach to the use of Bt crops may be necessary.
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            Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.

            Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management.
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              The Ecology of Heliothis Species in Relation to Agroecosystems

               G Fitt (1989)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Economic Entomology
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0022-0493
                1938-291X
                August 2018
                August 03 2018
                May 30 2018
                August 2018
                August 03 2018
                May 30 2018
                : 111
                : 4
                : 1732-1744
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus, E. Ridgetown, ON, Canada
                [2 ]Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, E. Ridgetown, ON, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
                Article
                10.1093/jee/toy138
                © 2018

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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