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      Impact of Combined Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Status and Systemic Inflammation on Outcome of Advanced NSCLC: Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study

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          Abstract

          Background

          In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic inflammatory biomarkers, such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), have significant association with prognosis. NLR and PLR also predict mortality in patients with COPD alone. A combination of the two parameters may be helpful in a more individualized approach for predicting prognosis in NSCLC.

          Methods

          Medical records of patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC from January 2012 to January 2018 in seven university hospitals were reviewed. Patients were categorized into four subgroups based on pulmonary function test results and cutoffs for NLR or PLR.

          Results

          A total of 277 patients were evaluated and categorized into non-COPD and COPD groups; 194 patients were in the non-COPD group and 83 patients were in the COPD group. The non-COPD group showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) compared with the COPD group (P = 0.019). Median survival was significantly different between high/low PLR groups (P < 0.001), between high/low NLR groups (P = 0.001), and between high/low c-reactive protein (CRP) groups (P < 0.001). PLR, NLR and CRP showed significant correlations with each other. PLR showed a significant negative linear correlation with FVC (absolute) (r = −0.149, P = 0.015), FVC (%) (r = −0.192, P = 0.002), DLCO (absolute) (r = −0.271, P < 0.001), DLCO (%) (r = −0.139, P = 0.032), and NLR (r = 0.718, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the high PLR, COPD sub-group showed significantly higher risk for mortality (HR 2.066 (1.175–3.633), P = 0.012) compared with the low-PLR non-COPD group. However, COPD-NLR subtype was not an independent predictor for OS.

          Conclusion

          A combination of COPD status and PLR may be a cost-effective and readily available prognostic marker in patients with advanced NSCLC.

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          Most cited references 42

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          New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1).

          Assessment of the change in tumour burden is an important feature of the clinical evaluation of cancer therapeutics: both tumour shrinkage (objective response) and disease progression are useful endpoints in clinical trials. Since RECIST was published in 2000, many investigators, cooperative groups, industry and government authorities have adopted these criteria in the assessment of treatment outcomes. However, a number of questions and issues have arisen which have led to the development of a revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Evidence for changes, summarised in separate papers in this special issue, has come from assessment of a large data warehouse (>6500 patients), simulation studies and literature reviews. HIGHLIGHTS OF REVISED RECIST 1.1: Major changes include: Number of lesions to be assessed: based on evidence from numerous trial databases merged into a data warehouse for analysis purposes, the number of lesions required to assess tumour burden for response determination has been reduced from a maximum of 10 to a maximum of five total (and from five to two per organ, maximum). Assessment of pathological lymph nodes is now incorporated: nodes with a short axis of 15 mm are considered measurable and assessable as target lesions. The short axis measurement should be included in the sum of lesions in calculation of tumour response. Nodes that shrink to <10mm short axis are considered normal. Confirmation of response is required for trials with response primary endpoint but is no longer required in randomised studies since the control arm serves as appropriate means of interpretation of data. Disease progression is clarified in several aspects: in addition to the previous definition of progression in target disease of 20% increase in sum, a 5mm absolute increase is now required as well to guard against over calling PD when the total sum is very small. Furthermore, there is guidance offered on what constitutes 'unequivocal progression' of non-measurable/non-target disease, a source of confusion in the original RECIST guideline. Finally, a section on detection of new lesions, including the interpretation of FDG-PET scan assessment is included. Imaging guidance: the revised RECIST includes a new imaging appendix with updated recommendations on the optimal anatomical assessment of lesions. A key question considered by the RECIST Working Group in developing RECIST 1.1 was whether it was appropriate to move from anatomic unidimensional assessment of tumour burden to either volumetric anatomical assessment or to functional assessment with PET or MRI. It was concluded that, at present, there is not sufficient standardisation or evidence to abandon anatomical assessment of tumour burden. The only exception to this is in the use of FDG-PET imaging as an adjunct to determination of progression. As is detailed in the final paper in this special issue, the use of these promising newer approaches requires appropriate clinical validation studies.
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            Global cancer statistics.

            The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.
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              Standardisation of spirometry.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                copd
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                14 December 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 3323-3334
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Bucheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Bucheon, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Eunpyeong St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [5 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [6 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [7 ]Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong Hyun Kim Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Bucheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , 327, Sosa-ro, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do14647, Republic of KoreaTel +82-32-340-7039Fax +82-32-340-2669 Email kyh30med@catholic.ac.kr
                Article
                274354
                10.2147/COPD.S274354
                7753914
                © 2020 Lim et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 12, References: 42, Pages: 12
                Funding
                Funded by: No funding;
                No funding was received.
                Categories
                Original Research

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