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      Role of Renal Epithelial Cells in the Initiation of Calcium Oxalate Stones

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      Calcium oxalate, Nephrolithiasis, Reactive oxygen species, Fibrosis

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          Abstract

          Normal urinary environment is inhibitory to crystallization. Occasional crystals are internalized by the renal epithelial cells and sequestered to lysosomes or externalized into the interstitium to be handled by the inflammatory cells. Elevated levels of oxalate and calcium oxalate crystals, however, provoke renal cells to increase the synthesis of osteopontin, bikunin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub>, which are known mediators of the inflammatory processes and extracellular matrix production. Osteopontin and bikunin are also modulators of crystallization. Exposed renal epithelial cells are often injured and go through apoptosis and/or necrosis initiating a cascade of events leading to further crystallization, crystal retention and development of stone nidi. Reactive oxygen species are produced during the interactions between the oxalate/crystals and renal cells and are responsible for the various cellular responses. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the rat kidneys also activates the renin-angiotensin system. Both oxalate and calcium oxalate crystals selectively activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the exposed tubular cells. Extracellular environment changes from one that inhibits crystal nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention to that, which promotes these processes.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Modulators of urinary stone formation.

           D Kok,  Zeyaur Khan (2004)
          Urine contains compounds that modulate the nucleation, growth and aggregation of crystals as well as their attachment to renal epithelial cells. These compounds may function to protect the kidneys against: 1, the possibility of crystallization in tubular fluid and urine, which are generally metastable with respect to calcium salts, 2, crystal retention within the kidneys thereby preventing stone formation and 3, possibly against plaque formation at the nephron basement membrane. Since oxalate is the most common stone type, the effect of various modulators on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization has been examined in greater details. Most of the inhibitory activity resides in macromolecules such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans while nucleation promotion activity is most likely sustained by membrane lipids. Nephrocalcin, Tamm-Horsfall protein, osteopontin, urinary prothrombin fragment 1, and bikunin are the most studied inhibitory proteins while chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) are the best studied glycosaminoglycans. Crystallization modulating macromolecules discussed here are also prominent in cell injury, inflammation and recovery. Renal epithelial cells on exposure to oxalate and CaOx crystals produce some of the inflammatory molecules such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with no apparent role in crystal formation. In addition, macrophages surround the CaOx crystals present in the renal interstitium. These observations indicate a close relationship between inflammation and nephrolithiasis.
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            Oxalate ions and calcium oxalate crystals stimulate MCP-1 expression by renal epithelial cells.

            Crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and excess oxalate ions (OX) stimulate an array of responses inducing localized injury and inflammation in the kidneys. These inflammatory responses are key regulators of development of nephrolithiasis. We propose that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine with potent chemotactic activity for monocytes/macrophages, is a mediator of local inflammatory responses to COM and OX-induced injury. To test this hypothesis, the effects of COM and OX on the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein by NRK52E rat renal tubular cells were investigated. Confluent cultures of NRK52E cells were exposed to COM (33 to 267 microg/cm2) or OX (125 to 1000 micromol/L, estimated free oxalate levels of 65.8 to 540 micromol/L) and catalase (400 or 2000 U/mL), a free radical scavenger that protects the cells against detrimental effects of COM and OX, for 1 to 48 hours under serum free conditions. The conditioned media were collected and total cellular RNA isolated from the cells and subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the expression of MCP-1 protein and mRNA, respectively. NRK52E cells express MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and the level of their expression significantly increases following treatments with COM and OX in a time and concentration dependent manner. MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein production increased more significantly after exposure to COM than to OX. These responses were significantly reduced following treatments with catalase (2000 U/mL). NRK52E cells express MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and their levels are altered following COM and OX exposure. Since catalase treatment reduced MCP-1 expression, free radicals may be involved in the up-regulation of MCP-1 production by the epithelial cells. The results suggest that elevated expression of MCP-1, which is often associated with local inflammatory response, may mediate similar reactions including attraction of macrophages seen around the interstitial crystals during the early stages of nephrolithiasis.
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              Lipid peroxidation in ethylene glycol induced hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

              To determine if lipid peroxidation plays a role in renal injury associated with experimental nephrolithiasis. Hyperoxaluria was produced in rats by ethylene glycol in drinking water. At 15, 30 and 60 days of treatment, urinary oxalate, lipid peroxide, calcium oxalate crystals, enzymes and tissue lipid peroxide were measured. Urinary oxalate increased significantly at all time periods and was associated with crystalluria. Lipid peroxides in kidney tissue and urine increased at all time periods. Tissue calcium oxalate crystal deposits from 0 to 1+ were present on day 15, but present in all animals on days 30 and 60. Renal tubular cell damage was confirmed by an increase in urinary marker enzymes. Renal cell damage is associated with lipid peroxide production indicating cell injury due to the production of free radicals. The damage appears due primarily to hyperoxaluria and is augmented by crystal deposition in the renal tubules.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7852-3
                978-3-318-06156-7
                1660-2129
                2004
                October 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 98
                : 2
                : e55-e60
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., USA
                Article
                80257 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2004;98:e55–e60
                10.1159/000080257
                15499208
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 1
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/80257
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