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      Personal Profiles, Family Environment, Patterns of Smartphone Use, Nomophobia, and Smartphone Addiction across Low, Average, and High Perceived Academic Performance Levels among High School Students in the Philippines

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          Abstract

          (1) Background: Problematic smartphone use in adolescents has become a major concern among parents and educators. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with, and the predictors of, low, average, and high perceived academic performance (PAP). (2) Methods: Descriptive and comparative analyses were employed in this cross-sectional study among 3374 Filipino high school students through an online Google forms survey. (3) Results: We found that age, grade level, father’s education, time spent daily on weekends, frequency of use on weekdays, purpose of use, nomophobia (NMP), and smartphone addiction (SA) were significantly associated with low PAP, while frequency of use on weekends and type of internet access had a significant association with high PAP. Gender was a significant predictor of low, average, and high PAP. Father’s education and SA were also significant predictors for both low and average PAP. (4) Conclusions: This study shows the significant association between personal profiles, family environment, patterns of smartphone use, NMP, and SA contributing to a significant impact on Filipino high school students’ PAP. This suggests that proper guidelines for smartphone use should be provided at home and in school settings to raise awareness of the adverse effects of SA on students’ academic performance.

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          Most cited references90

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          A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use

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            A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework

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              Normality Tests for Statistical Analysis: A Guide for Non-Statisticians

              Statistical errors are common in scientific literature and about 50% of the published articles have at least one error. The assumption of normality needs to be checked for many statistical procedures, namely parametric tests, because their validity depends on it. The aim of this commentary is to overview checking for normality in statistical analysis using SPSS.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                14 May 2021
                May 2021
                : 18
                : 10
                : 5219
                Affiliations
                Department of Addiction Science, Sahmyook University Graduate School, Seoul 01795, Korea; danny_bee2k3@ 123456yahoo.com (D.B.B.); sunnyisaac@ 123456naver.com (S.-H.K.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kimnami75@ 123456syu.ac.kr
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5605-840X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9559-5796
                Article
                ijerph-18-05219
                10.3390/ijerph18105219
                8156849
                34068928
                71590b4d-7b25-43dd-9efc-530a4347897d
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 11 April 2021
                : 12 May 2021
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                family environment,patterns of smartphone use,nomophobia,smartphone addiction,filipino high school students,perceived academic performance

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