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Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

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      Abstract

      Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function.

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      Affiliations
      [1 ] Tokyo University of Social Welfare, 2-13-32, Marunouchi Naka-ku, Nagoya-City 460-0002, Japan. Electronic address: matuuranaomi@yahoo.co.jp.
      [2 ] Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23-3 MatsuokaShimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193, Japan; Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8553, Japan.
      [3 ] Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, 23-3 MatsuokaShimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 Japan; Developmental Emotional Intelligence, Division of Developmental Higher Brain Functions, Department of Child Development United Graduate School of Child Development,23-3 MatsuokaShimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.
      [4 ] Hiratani Pediatric Clinic, 1409-2 Kitayotsui, Fukui-shi, Fukui 918-8205, Japan.
      [5 ] Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23-3 MatsuokaShimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193, Japan; Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, 23-3 MatsuokaShimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 Japan.
      [6 ] Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23-3 MatsuokaShimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.
      [7 ] Tokyo University of Social Welfare, 2-13-32, Marunouchi Naka-ku, Nagoya-City 460-0002, Japan.
      [8 ] Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, 23-3 MatsuokaShimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 Japan; Hiratani Pediatric Clinic, 1409-2 Kitayotsui, Fukui-shi, Fukui 918-8205, Japan.
      Journal
      Asian J Psychiatr
      Asian journal of psychiatry
      Elsevier BV
      1876-2026
      1876-2018
      Dec 2014
      : 12
      25440561
      S1876-2018(14)00144-0
      10.1016/j.ajp.2014.06.011

      WISC-IV, ADHD, ASD, Behavioral assessments, CANTAB(®)

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