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      Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles : LCA of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

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      Journal of Industrial Ecology

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Extracting Embodied Energy Paths from Input–Output Tables: Towards an Input–Output-based Hybrid Energy Analysis Method

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            Consumption and the Rebound Effect: An Industrial Ecology Perspective

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              Contribution of Li-ion batteries to the environmental impact of electric vehicles.

              Battery-powered electric cars (BEVs) play a key role in future mobility scenarios. However, little is known about the environmental impacts of the production, use and disposal of the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery. This makes it difficult to compare the environmental impacts of BEVs with those of internal combustion engine cars (ICEVs). Consequently, a detailed lifecycle inventory of a Li-ion battery and a rough LCA of BEV based mobility were compiled. The study shows that the environmental burdens of mobility are dominated by the operation phase regardless of whether a gasoline-fueled ICEV or a European electricity fueled BEV is used. The share of the total environmental impact of E-mobility caused by the battery (measured in Ecoindicator 99 points) is 15%. The impact caused by the extraction of lithium for the components of the Li-ion battery is less than 2.3% (Ecoindicator 99 points). The major contributor to the environmental burden caused by the battery is the supply of copper and aluminum for the production of the anode and the cathode, plus the required cables or the battery management system. This study provides a sound basis for more detailed environmental assessments of battery based E-mobility.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Industrial Ecology
                Journal of Industrial Ecology
                Wiley-Blackwell
                10881980
                February 2013
                February 2013
                : 17
                : 1
                : 53-64
                Article
                10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00532.x
                © 2013

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