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      Inter and intra-rater repeatability of the scoring of foot pain drawings

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          Foot pain drawings (manikins) are commonly used to describe foot pain location in self-report health surveys. Respondents shade the manikin where they experience pain. The manikin is then scored via a transparent overlay that divides the drawings into areas. In large population based studies they are often scored by multiple raters. A difference in how different raters score manikins (inter-rater repeatability), or in how an individual rater scores manikins over time (intra-rater repeatability) can therefore affect data quality. This study aimed to assess inter- and intra-rater repeatability of scoring of the foot manikin.


          A random sample was generated of 50 respondents to a large population based survey of adults aged 50 years and older who experienced foot pain and completed a foot manikin. Manikins were initially scored by any one of six administrative staff (Rating 1). These manikins were re-scored by a second rater (Rating 2). The second rater then re-scored the manikins one week later (Rating 3). The following scores were compared: Rating 1 versus Rating 2 (inter-rater repeatability), and Rating 2 versus Rating 3 (intra-rater repeatability). A novel set of clinically relevant foot pain regions made up of one or more individual areas on the foot manikin were developed, and assessed for inter- and intra-rater repeatability.


          Scoring agreement of 100% (all 50 manikins) was seen in 69% (40 out of 58) of individual areas for inter-rater scoring (range 94 to 100%), and 81% (47 out of 58) of areas for intra-rater scoring (range 96 to 100%). All areas had a kappa value of ≥0.70 for inter- and intra-rater scoring. Scoring agreement of 100% was seen in 50% (10 out of 20) of pain regions for inter-rater scoring (range 96 to 100%), and 95% (19 out of 20) of regions for intra-rater scoring (range 98 to 100%). All regions had a kappa value of >0.70 for inter- and intra-rater scoring .


          Individual and multiple raters can reliably score the foot pain manikin. In addition, our proposed regions may be used to reliably classify different patterns of foot pain using the foot manikin.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Foot and ankle risk factors for falls in older people: a prospective study.

           H Menz,  M Morris,  S R Lord (2006)
          Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired balance and functional ability. Few prospective studies, however, have been undertaken to determine whether foot problems are a risk factor for falls. One hundred seventy-six people (56 men and 120 women, mean age 80.1, standard deviation 6.4 years) residing in a retirement village underwent tests of foot and ankle characteristics (including foot posture, range of motion, strength, and deformity) and physiological falls risk factors (including vision, sensation, strength, reaction time, and balance) and were followed for 12 months to determine the incidence of falls. Seventy-one participants (41%) reported falling during the follow-up period. Compared to those who did not fall, fallers exhibited decreased ankle flexibility, more severe hallux valgus deformity, decreased plantar tactile sensitivity, and decreased toe plantarflexor strength; they were also more likely to have disabling foot pain. Discriminant function analysis revealed that decreased toe plantarflexor strength and disabling foot pain were significantly and independently associated with falls after accounting for physiological falls risk factors and age. Foot and ankle problems increase the risk of falls in older people. Interventions to address these factors may hold some promise as a falls prevention strategy.
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            The Cheshire Foot Pain and Disability Survey: a population survey assessing prevalence and associations.

            Previous foot studies have consistently reported high prevalence estimates in self-reported foot disorders. Few population studies, however, have attempted to assess the impact of foot problems in terms of pain and disability so that the burden associated with foot pain is unknown. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted on a random community sample of 4780 individuals with 3417 (84%) responding. Subjects reporting foot pain in the past month, current pain and marking one item on the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index were classified as having disabling foot pain. Those with disabling foot pain and a random sample with no symptoms (matched for age and gender) received a follow-up interview and standardised foot examination. Self-reported nail problems, corns and callosities, swollen feet, foot deformities and recent foot injuries were found to be associated with disabling foot pain. Foot disability was also associated with pain in the shoulder, axial skeleton, hip/upper leg and knee along with other indicators of poor general health. Clinician diagnosed foot problems associated with disabling foot pain were swollen feet, knee and foot joint tenderness. Only 36% of persons with disabling foot pain received professional foot treatment in the 6 months preceding the survey. The results showed that 323/3417 (9.5%) reported symptoms of disabling foot pain and that this condition is likely to be multi-factorial in origin. Further work is necessary to understand more about the extent and type of unmet need and on how patients presenting with symptoms of disabling foot pain should best be managed.
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              Foot pain and disability in older persons: an epidemiologic survey.

              To investigate the prevalence of foot pain in older people and its association with pathological conditions of the feet and with disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Cross-sectional survey of a community-dwelling older population. A total of 459 subjects, 73% of the population aged 65 years and older living in Dicomano, Florence, Italy. A standardized medical examination was performed by a geriatrician to collect information on the presence of pain, specific problems of the feet, gait, and several indicators of physical health status. Disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living was evaluated by self-report. The prevalence of foot pain was very high, especially in subjects affected by calluses or corns, hallux deformities, hammer toes, pes planus, and edema and among those who complained of difficulty in looking after the basic needs of the feet. Patients with foot pain needed a greater number of steps and longer time to walk the same distance. Foot pain was associated with a higher prevalence of disability in instrumental activities of daily living, particularly those related to standing and ambulation capacities, but it was not related to higher prevalence of disability in basic activities of daily living. Foot pain is associated with specific conditions of the feet and disability in instrumental activities of daily living. Adequate assessment and treatment of foot problems may prevent foot pain and potentially reduce risk of disability. This hypothesis needs to be tested in longitudinal studies and specific intervention trials.

                Author and article information

                J Foot Ankle Res
                J Foot Ankle Res
                Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
                BioMed Central
                1 November 2013
                : 6
                : 44
                [1 ]Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre, Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, United Kingdom
                [2 ]Lower Extremity and Gait Studies Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
                [3 ]Health and Rehabilitation Research Institute and School of Podiatry, AUT University, Auckland 0627, New Zealand
                Copyright © 2013 Chatterton et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



                foot pain, pain drawings, manikins, reliability, repeatability, agreement


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