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      Reduction in Virulence over Time in Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) Microvariants between 2011 and 2015 in Australia

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          Abstract

          Microvariant genotypes of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) are associated with mass mortality events of Pacific oysters in many countries. The OsHV-1 microvariant (µVar) emerged in France 2008 and caused significant economic losses as it became endemic and displaced the previously dominant OsHV-1 reference genotype. Recently, considerable genotypic variation has been described for OsHV-1 microvariants, however, less is known about variation in viral phenotype. This study used an in vivo laboratory infection model to assess differences in total cumulative mortality, peak viral load, transmissibility, and dose-response for three OsHV-1 isolates obtained between 2011 and 2015 from endemic waterways in Australia. This followed field observations of apparent reductions in the severity of mass mortalities over this time. Significantly higher hazard of death and cumulative mortality were observed for an isolate obtained in 2011 compared to isolates from 2014–2015. In keeping with other studies, the hazard of death was higher in oysters challenged by injection compared to challenge by cohabitation and the mortality was higher when the initial dose was 1 × 10 4 OsHV-1 DNA copies per oyster injection compared to 1 × 10 2 DNA copies. There was no difference in the quantity of OsHV-1 DNA at time of death that could be related to isolate or dose, suggesting similar pathogenetic processes in the individual oysters that succumbed to end-stage disease. While the isolates examined in this study were biased towards pathogenic types of OsHV-1, as they were collected during disease outbreaks, the variation in virulence that was observed, when combined with prior data on subclinical infections, suggests that surveillance for low virulence genotypes of OsHV-1 would be rewarding. This may lead to new approaches to disease management which utilize controlled exposure to attenuated strains of OsHV-1.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Detection and description of a particular Ostreid herpesvirus 1 genotype associated with massive mortality outbreaks of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France in 2008.

          Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). In the summer 2008, abnormal mortality rates ranging from 80% to 100% were reported in France and affected only Pacific oysters. Analyses of oyster samples collected during mortality outbreaks demonstrated a significant detection of OsHV-1 (75% of analysed batches), which appeared stronger than previous years. DNA sequencing based on C and IA regions was carried out on 28 batches of OsHV-1 infected Pacific oysters collected in 2008. Polymorphisms were described in both the C and IA regions and characterized a genotype of OsHV-1 not already reported and termed OsHV-1 microVar. A microsatellite zone present in the C region showed several deletions. Additionally, 44 isolates collected in France and in the USA, from 1995 to 2007 were sequenced and compared to the 2008 sequences. The analyses of 76 sequences showed OsHV-1 microVar detection only in 2008 isolates. These data suggest that OsHV-1 microVar can be assumed as an emergent genotype. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            A novel class of herpesvirus with bivalve hosts.

            Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is the only member of the Herpesviridae that has an invertebrate host and is associated with sporadic mortality in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and other bivalve species. Cryo-electron microscopy of purified capsids revealed the distinctive T=16 icosahedral structure characteristic of herpesviruses, although the preparations examined lacked pentons. The gross genome organization of OsHV-1 was similar to that of certain mammalian herpesviruses (including herpes simplex virus and human cytomegalovirus), consisting of two invertible unique regions (U(L), 167.8 kbp; U(S), 3.4 kbp) each flanked by inverted repeats (TR(L)/IR(L), 7.6 kbp; TR(S)/IR(S), 9.8 kbp), with an additional unique sequence (X, 1.5 kbp) between IR(L) and IR(S). Of the 124 unique genes predicted from the 207 439 bp genome sequence, 38 were members of 12 families of related genes and encoded products related to helicases, inhibitors of apoptosis, deoxyuridine triphosphatase and RING-finger proteins, in addition to membrane-associated proteins. Eight genes in three of the families appeared to be fragmented. Other genes that did not belong to the families were predicted to encode DNA polymerase, the two subunits of ribonucleotide reductase, a helicase, a primase, the ATPase subunit of terminase, a RecB-like protein, additional RING-like proteins, an ion channel and several other membrane-associated proteins. Sequence comparisons showed that OsHV-1 is at best tenuously related to the two classes of vertebrate herpesviruses (those associated with mammals, birds and reptiles, and those associated with bony fish and amphibians). OsHV-1 thus represents a third major class of the herpesviruses.
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              Virulence evolution and the trade-off hypothesis: history, current state of affairs and the future.

              It has been more than two decades since the formulation of the so-called 'trade-off' hypothesis as an alternative to the then commonly accepted idea that parasites should always evolve towards avirulence (the 'avirulence hypothesis'). The trade-off hypothesis states that virulence is an unavoidable consequence of parasite transmission; however, since the 1990s, this hypothesis has been increasingly challenged. We discuss the history of the study of virulence evolution and the development of theories towards the trade-off hypothesis in order to illustrate the context of the debate. We investigate the arguments raised against the trade-off hypothesis and argue that trade-offs exist, but may not be of the simple form that is usually assumed, involving other mechanisms (and life-history traits) than those originally considered. Many processes such as pathogen adaptation to within-host competition, interactions with the immune system and shifting transmission routes, will all be interrelated making sweeping evolutionary predictions harder to obtain. We argue that this is the heart of the current debate in the field and while species-specific models may be better predictive tools, the trade-off hypothesis and its basic extensions are necessary to assess the qualitative impacts of virulence management strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                20 May 2021
                May 2021
                : 13
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden 2570, Australia; gcai8763@ 123456uni.sydney.edu.au (G.C.); Olivia.Liu@ 123456awe.gov.au (O.L.); richard.whittington@ 123456sydney.edu.au (R.J.W.)
                Author notes
                Article
                viruses-13-00946
                10.3390/v13050946
                8160646
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Microbiology & Virology

                pacific oyster, crassostrea gigas, ostreid herpesvirus 1, virulence, phenotype

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