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      Insect responses to global change offer signposts for biodiversity and conservation

      1 , 2 , 2 , 3

      Ecological Entomology

      Wiley

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          Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters.

          Modern climate change is producing poleward range shifts of numerous taxa, communities and ecosystems worldwide. The response of species to changing environments is likely to be determined largely by population responses at range margins. In contrast to the expanding edge, the low-latitude limit (rear edge) of species ranges remains understudied, and the critical importance of rear edge populations as long-term stores of species' genetic diversity and foci of speciation has been little acknowledged. We review recent findings from the fossil record, phylogeography and ecology to illustrate that rear edge populations are often disproportionately important for the survival and evolution of biota. Their ecological features, dynamics and conservation requirements differ from those of populations in other parts of the range, and some commonly recommended conservation practices might therefore be of little use or even counterproductive for rear edge populations.
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            Synergies among extinction drivers under global change.

            If habitat destruction or overexploitation of populations is severe, species loss can occur directly and abruptly. Yet the final descent to extinction is often driven by synergistic processes (amplifying feedbacks) that can be disconnected from the original cause of decline. We review recent observational, experimental and meta-analytic work which together show that owing to interacting and self-reinforcing processes, estimates of extinction risk for most species are more severe than previously recognised. As such, conservation actions which only target single-threat drivers risk being inadequate because of the cascading effects caused by unmanaged synergies. Future work should focus on how climate change will interact with and accelerate ongoing threats to biodiversity, such as habitat degradation, overexploitation and invasive species.
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              The importance of biotic interactions for modelling species distributions under climate change

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Ecological Entomology
                Ecol Entomol
                Wiley
                0307-6946
                1365-2311
                November 11 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departamento de Biogeografía y Cambio Global Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN‐CSIC) Madrid Spain
                [2 ]Environment and Sustainability Institute University of Exeter Penryn Cornwall U.K.
                [3 ]Butterfly Conservation Wareham Dorset U.K.
                Article
                10.1111/een.12970
                © 2020

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