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      Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal

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      Nature Physics

      Springer Nature

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          Entanglement of Formation of an Arbitrary State of Two Qubits

          The entanglement of a pure state of a pair of quantum systems is defined as the entropy of either member of the pair. The entanglement of formation of a mixed state is defined as the minimum average entanglement of an ensemble of pure states that represents the given mixed state. An earlier paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5022 (1997)] conjectured an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of a pair of binary quantum objects (qubits) as a function of their density matrix, and proved the formula to be true for a special class of mixed states. The present paper extends the proof to arbitrary states of this system and shows how to construct entanglement-minimizing pure-state decompositions.
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            Decoherence, einselection, and the quantum origins of the classical

              (2001)
            Decoherence is caused by the interaction with the environment. Environment monitors certain observables of the system, destroying interference between the pointer states corresponding to their eigenvalues. This leads to environment-induced superselection or einselection, a quantum process associated with selective loss of information. Einselected pointer states are stable. They can retain correlations with the rest of the Universe in spite of the environment. Einselection enforces classicality by imposing an effective ban on the vast majority of the Hilbert space, eliminating especially the flagrantly non-local "Schr\"odinger cat" states. Classical structure of phase space emerges from the quantum Hilbert space in the appropriate macroscopic limit: Combination of einselection with dynamics leads to the idealizations of a point and of a classical trajectory. In measurements, einselection replaces quantum entanglement between the apparatus and the measured system with the classical correlation.
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              Purification of Noisy Entanglement and Faithful Teleportation via Noisy Channels

              Two separated observers, by applying local operations to a supply of not-too-impure entangled states ({\em e.g.} singlets shared through a noisy channel), can prepare a smaller number of entangled pairs of arbitrarily high purity ({\em e.g.} near-perfect singlets). These can then be used to faithfully teleport unknown quantum states from one observer to the other, thereby achieving faithful transfrom one observer to the other, thereby achieving faithful transmission of quantum information through a noisy channel. We give upper and lower bounds on the yield \(D(M)\) of pure singlets (\(\ket{\Psi^-}\)) distillable from mixed states \(M\), showing \(D(M)>0\) if \(\bra{\Psi^-}M\ket{\Psi^-}>\half\).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Physics
                Nat Phys
                Springer Nature
                1745-2473
                1745-2481
                December 18 2011
                December 18 2011
                : 8
                : 2
                : 117-120
                Article
                10.1038/nphys2178
                © 2011
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