Background: Demographic transition is causing an increasingly aged society, which has a significant impact on public health strategies. Increases in the size of the elderly cohort create a wider stratification and pose specific challenges. Nutrition and diet are one key issue. This study aims to describe food-related practices, beliefs, and representations of non-institutionalized older adults in rural communities in Extremadura (Western Spain). Method: The ethnographic-based fieldwork was conducted from January to July 2019. Empirical material was collected through different research relationships (semi-structured interviews and informal conversations) and direct observation in various locations in Extremadura―involving a variety of agents associated with different aspects of the nutritional process. Results: Data analysis revealed four major themes: (1) Limitations on choice and quality of food available; (2) food preferences and cooking methods; (3) the role of nostalgia in the construction of taste preferences; and (4) perceptions of what “healthy” food is and how respondents relate to the advice provided by health professionals. Conclusions: Nutritional choices among the group studied presented significant differences from medical advice―which was seen as a series of “bans” that did not carry enough authority to alter the symbolic value attached to their traditions.