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      Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Reveal Sibship Among Founders of a Bangladeshi Rohu ( Labeo rohita) Breeding Population

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          Rohu ( Labeo rohita) is a significant freshwater aquaculture species with approximately 1.8 Mt produced annually. Fin clips obtained from the founders of a newly established Bangladesh-based breeding population (∼140 fish from each of the Halda, Jamuna, and Padma rivers) were used to identify 9157 SNPs and 14 411 silicoDArT markers using the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) genotyping-by-sequencing platform known as DArTseq. After quality control, 1985 SNPs were retained and used to examine population structure within and among river systems. Examination of genomic relationships revealed evidence of full- and half-sibling relationships among founders. Accordingly, sibship and dummy parents were assigned within each river population using a maximum likelihood approach with COLONY software. Founders that had no dummy parents in common were then identified for population genetic analyses. Only 40 unique dummy parents and 17 founders with no common dummy parents were identified from the Halda river, compared with 206 (96) from the Jamuna and 184 (83) from the Padma. Overall pairwise F ST estimates among rivers were low (<0.005) and the optimum number of clusters using unsupervised K-means clustering was one, indicating little genetic divergence among the river populations in our SNPs. These results suggest that observed sibship among founders should be accounted for in future pedigree-based analyses and it cannot be assumed that fertilized spawn collections are representative samples of river populations.

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          COLONY: a program for parentage and sibship inference from multilocus genotype data.

          Pedigrees, depicting genealogical relationships between individuals, are important in several research areas. Molecular markers allow inference of pedigrees in wild species where relationship information is impossible to collect by observation. Marker data are analysed statistically using methods based on Mendelian inheritance rules. There are numerous computer programs available to conduct pedigree analysis, but most software is inflexible, both in terms of assumptions and data requirements. Most methods only accommodate monogamous diploid species using codominant markers without genotyping error. In addition, most commonly used methods use pairwise comparisons rather than a full-pedigree likelihood approach, which considers the likelihood of the entire pedigree structure and allows the simultaneous inference of parentage and sibship. Here, we describe colony, a computer program implementing full-pedigree likelihood methods to simultaneously infer sibship and parentage among individuals using multilocus genotype data. colony can be used for both diploid and haplodiploid species; it can use dominant and codominant markers, and can accommodate, and estimate, genotyping error at each locus. In addition, colony can carry out these inferences for both monoecious and dioecious species. The program is available as a Microsoft Windows version, which includes a graphical user interface, and a Macintosh version, which uses an R-based interface. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            ADZE: a rarefaction approach for counting alleles private to combinations of populations

            Motivation: Analysis of the distribution of alleles across populations is a useful tool for examining population diversity and relationships. However, sample sizes often differ across populations, sometimes making it difficult to assess allelic distributions across groups. Results: We introduce a generalized rarefaction approach for counting alleles private to combinations of populations. Our method evaluates the number of alleles found in each of a set of populations but absent in all remaining populations, considering equal-sized subsamples from each population. Applying this method to a worldwide human microsatellite dataset, we observe a high number of alleles private to the combination of African and Oceanian populations. This result supports the possibility of a migration out of Africa into Oceania separate from the migrations responsible for the majority of the ancestry of the modern populations of Asia, and it highlights the utility of our approach to sample size correction in evaluating hypotheses about population history. Availability: We have implemented our method in the computer pro-gram ADZE, which is available for download at Contact:
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               Sewall Wright (1965)

                Author and article information

                Front Genet
                Front Genet
                Front. Genet.
                Frontiers in Genetics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                19 June 2019
                : 10
                1WorldFish , Penang, Malaysia
                2Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University , Cairo, Egypt
                3Diversity Arrays Technology Pty Ltd., (DArT P/L), University of Canberra , Bruce, ACT, Australia
                4School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork , Cork, Ireland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Hooman Moghadam, SalmoBreed AS, Norway

                Reviewed by: Jesús Fernández, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Spain; Kwan-Suk Kim, Chungbuk National University, South Korea

                *Correspondence: Matthew Gray Hamilton, m.hamilton@

                This article was submitted to Livestock Genomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics

                Copyright © 2019 Hamilton, Mekkawy, Kilian and Benzie.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 8, Words: 0
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