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      Transtracheal single-point stent fixation in posttracheotomy tracheomalacia under cone-beam computer tomography guidance by transmural suturing with the Berci needle – a perspective on a new tool to avoid stent migration of Dumon stents

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          Abstract

          Tracheomalacia or tracheobronchomalacia (TM or TBM) is a common problem especially for elderly patients often unfit for surgical techniques. Several surgical or minimally invasive techniques have already been described. Stenting is one option but in general long-time stenting is accompanied by a high complication rate. Stent removal is more difficult in case of self-expandable nitinol stents or metallic stents in general in comparison to silicone stents. The main disadvantage of silicone stents in comparison to uncovered metallic stents is migration and plugging. We compared the operation time and in particular the duration of a sufficient Dumon stent fixation with different techniques in a patient with severe posttracheotomy TM and strongly reduced mobility of the vocal cords due to Parkinson’s disease. The combined approach with simultaneous Dumon stenting and endoluminal transtracheal externalized suture under cone-beam computer tomography guidance with the Berci needle was by far the fastest approach compared to a (not performed) surgical intervention, or even purely endoluminal suturing through the rigid bronchoscope. The duration of the endoluminal transtracheal externalized suture was between 5 minutes and 9 minutes with the Berci needle; the pure endoluminal approach needed 51 minutes. The alternative of tracheobronchoplasty was refused by the patient. In general, 180 minutes for this surgical approach is calculated. The costs of the different approaches are supposed to vary widely due to the fact that in Germany 1 minute in an operation room costs on average approximately 50–60€ inclusive of taxes. In our own hospital (tertiary level), it is nearly 30€ per minute in an operation room for a surgical approach. Calculating an additional 15 minutes for patient preparation and transfer to wake-up room, therefore a total duration inside the investigation room of 30 minutes, the cost per flexible bronchoscopy is per minute on average less than 6€. Although the Dumon stenting requires a set-up with more expensive anesthesiology accompaniment, which takes longer than a flexible investigation estimated at 1 hour in an operation room, still without calculation of the costs of the materials and specialized staff that the surgical approach would consume at least 3,000€ more than a minimally invasive approach performed with the Berci needle. This difference is due to the longer time of the surgical intervention which is calculated at approximately 180 minutes in comparison to the achieved non-surgical approach of 60 minutes in the operation suite.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Airway stabilization with silicone stents for treating adult tracheobronchomalacia: a prospective observational study.

          It is postulated that in patients with severe tracheobronchomalacia (TBM), airway stabilization with stents may relieve symptoms. To evaluate the effect of silicone stents (tracheal, mainstem bronchus, or both) on symptoms, quality of life, lung function, and exercise capacity in these patients. A prospective observational study in which baseline measurements were compared to those obtained 10 to 14 days after stent placement. Of 75 referred patients, 58 had severe disease and underwent therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy with stent placement. Mean age was 69 years (range, 39 to 91 years), 34 were men, 33 had COPD, and 13 had asthma. Almost all patients (n = 57) had dyspnea as a sole symptom or in combination with cough and recurrent infections; four patients required mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. In 45 of 58 patients, there was reported symptomatic improvement; quality of life scores improved in 19 of 27 patients (p = 0.002); dyspnea scores improved in 22 of 24 patients (p = 0.001); functional status scores improved in 18 of 26 patients (p = 0.002); and mean exercise capacity improved from baseline, although not significantly. The 49 complications included mainly 21 partial stent obstructions, 14 infections, and 10 stent migrations. Most patients with concomitant COPD also improved on most measures. In the short term, airway stabilization with silicone stents in patients with severe TBM can improve respiratory symptoms, quality of life, and functional status. Coexisting COPD is not an absolute contraindication to a stenting trial in this population. Stenting is associated with a high number of short-term and long-term but generally reversible complications.
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            A proposed classification system of central airway stenosis.

            Tracheobronchial stenosis, a serious problem in adults and children, has multiple causes and has been treated in many ways. While developing an international multicentre study to evaluate efficacy of airway stents, it was realised that no adequate description of central airway stenosis regarding type, location and degree has been published. Thus, comparing results of different treatment modalities in different centres has been difficult due to a lack of uniformity of classification. Reports are typically descriptive and precise classification schemes have not adequately addressed either for the trachea or the main bronchi. A standardised classification scheme was proposed with descriptive images and diagrams for rapid and uniform classification of central airway stenosis. The present authors' system divides stenosis into structural and dynamic types and further classifies the disease by degree of stenosis, location and transition zone. Multiple sites can be described and each is transformed into a simple numerical scoring system prompted by a diagram, which can be easily captured for subsequent uniform analysis across sites. A pilot validation of the system, with 18 pulmonologists of varying training background, showed strong precision and agreement between observers. Such a system will enhance the ability to study the effectiveness of treatment modalities for central airway stenosis.
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              Self-expandable metallic airway stents and flexible bronchoscopy: long-term outcomes analysis.

              s: To report and analyze our 6-year experience with implanting 112 self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) using flexible bronchoscopy (FB). Retrospective study, tertiary-care hospital. The studied population consisted of 82 patients (mean age, 59.1 years; range, 37 to 83 years), who received SEMSs from 1995 to 2001 using Wallstent (Boston Scientific; Galway, Ireland) or Ultraflex (Boston Scientific) stents. The indications for stent placement were airway obstruction caused by neoplasia (lung carcinoma [CA], n = 50), airway complications of lung transplantation (LTx) [n = 11], and miscellaneous benign conditions (BCs) [n = 21]. The most frequent clinical presentations for the airway obstruction were moderate-to-severe dyspnea (80%) and coughing (45%). The median follow-up duration for the CA group was 42.0 days (range, 1 to 672 days), 329.0 days (range, 35 to 1,540 days) for patients receiving LTx, and 336.0 days (range, 7 to 2,184 days) for the patients with miscellaneous BCs. The observed complications included infection (15.9%), obstructive granulomas (14.6%), and migration (4.7%). The incidence of granulomas was significantly lower in the patients with CA (4.0%) vs LTx and BC groups (17.3% and 33.3% respectively; p = 0.002). All other assessed variables showed no difference between the three analyzed groups. No cases of mucus plugging or fatal hemoptysis were observed. Forty-four patients (53.7%) had no complications related to the SEMS. The incidence of complications was not related to the type of stent (Wallstent or Ultraflex) or SEMS version (covered or uncovered). Fourteen of the 16 patients (87.5%) who were receiving mechanical ventilation could be weaned after the procedure. There were no deaths related to SEMS placement. An SEMS is a safe and effective modality for malignant as well as selected benign airway obstruction. An SEMS is an acceptable therapeutic alternative in patients with central airway obstruction who are not considered good surgical candidates and are receiving mechanical ventilation. Careful patient selection is of outmost importance for a good outcome after airway stenting. Insertion using FB adds to the ease of the procedure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                22 May 2015
                : 11
                : 837-850
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Medical Clinic I, “Fuerth” Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medinos Clinic Sonneberg, Sonnerberg, Germany
                [3 ]Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
                [4 ]Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, University Hospital Essen, University of Essen-Duisburg, Tueschener Weg, Essen, Germany
                [5 ]Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Interventional Pulmonology, National Naval Medical Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA
                [6 ]Division of Interventional Pulmonology and Medical Oncology, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Western Regional Medical Center, Goodyear, AZ, USA
                [7 ]Department of Respiratory Diseases Shanghai Hospital, II Military University Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [8 ]Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
                [9 ]II Medical Clinic, “Coburg” Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Paul Zarogoulidis, Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Fax +30 23 1099 2424, Tel +30 69 7727 1974, Email pzarog@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-11-837
                10.2147/TCRM.S83230
                4448926
                © 2015 Hohenforst-Schmidt et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Perspectives

                Medicine

                tracheobronchomalacia, stent, airway, cone-beam computer tomography, berci needle, dumon stents

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