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      Annual rhythms of temporal niche partitioning in the Sparidae family are correlated to different environmental variables

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          The seasonal timing of recurring biological processes is essential for organisms living in temperate regions. While ample knowledge of these processes exists for terrestrial environments, seasonal timing in the marine environment is relatively understudied. Here, we characterized the annual rhythm of habitat use in six fish species belonging to the Sparidae family, highlighting the main environmental variables that correlate to such rhythms. The study was conducted at a coastal artificial reef through a cabled observatory system, which allowed gathering underwater time-lapse images every 30 minutes consecutively over 3 years. Rhythms of fish counts had a significant annual periodicity in four out of the six studied species. Species-specific temporal patterns were found, demonstrating a clear annual temporal niche partitioning within the studied family. Temperature was the most important environmental variable correlated with fish counts in the proximity of the artificial reef, while daily photoperiod and salinity were not important. In a scenario of human-induced rapid environmental change, tracking phenological shifts may provide key indications about the effects of climate change at both species and ecosystem level. Our study reinforces the efficacy of underwater cabled video-observatories as a reliable tool for long-term monitoring of phenological events.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Ecological and Evolutionary Responses to Recent Climate Change

          Ecological changes in the phenology and distribution of plants and animals are occurring in all well-studied marine, freshwater, and terrestrial groups. These observed changes are heavily biased in the directions predicted from global warming and have been linked to local or regional climate change through correlations between climate and biological variation, field and laboratory experiments, and physiological research. Range-restricted species, particularly polar and mountaintop species, show severe range contractions and have been the first groups in which entire species have gone extinct due to recent climate change. Tropical coral reefs and amphibians have been most negatively affected. Predator-prey and plant-insect interactions have been disrupted when interacting species have responded differently to warming. Evolutionary adaptations to warmer conditions have occurred in the interiors of species' ranges, and resource use and dispersal have evolved rapidly at expanding range margins. Observed genetic shifts modulate local effects of climate change, but there is little evidence that they will mitigate negative effects at the species level.
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            Multimodel Inference: Understanding AIC and BIC in Model Selection

             K. Burnham (2004)
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              Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (with discussion)


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                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                8 February 2019
                8 February 2019
                : 9
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2205 5473, GRID grid.423782.8, Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), ; Via del Cedro 38, 57122 Livorno, Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2108 8097, GRID grid.419247.d, Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, , Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, ; Müggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9969 0902, GRID grid.412221.6, IIMyC, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, CONICET – FCEyN, , Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, ; Funes, 3250(7600) Mar del Plata, Provincia de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1013 0288, GRID grid.418375.c, Department of Animal Ecology, , Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O Box 50, ; 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 314X, GRID grid.8756.c, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, , University of Glasgow, ; Glasgow, G128QQ UK
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 1758, GRID grid.6292.f, Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, , University of Bologna, ; Via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna, Italy
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1017 3210, GRID grid.7010.6, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, , Polytechnic University of Marche, ; Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1758 0806, GRID grid.6401.3, Stazione Zoologica A Dohrn, ; Villa comunale, Napoli, Italy
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1940 4177, GRID grid.5326.2, Institute of Marine Science, , National Research Council of Italy, ; Forte Santa Teresa, la Spezia, Italy
                [10 ]GRID grid.6835.8, SARTI Research Group. Dept. Eng. Electrònica, , Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ; Vilanova i la Geltrú, Spain
                [11 ]GRID grid.10911.38, Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare (CoNISMa), ; Piazzale Flaminio 9, 00196 Roma, Italy
                [12 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1793 765X, GRID grid.418218.6, Marine Science Institute (ICM-CSIC), ; Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona, Spain
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit

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