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      Complicaciones feto-neonatales del embarazo múltiple. Análisis embriológico

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          Abstract

          Objetivo: Analizar las características epidemiológicas y complicaciones feto/neonatales del embarazo múltiple en el Hospital Militar de Maracaibo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo en pacientes ingresadas con embarazo múltiple desde el 01 de enero de 1998 al 30 de mayo de 2013. Se registró edad materna, presentación, tipo de parto, motivo de interrupción del embarazo, corionicidad, complicaciones feto/neonatales, peso y anomalías congénitas. Resultados: De 2 469 embarazadas ingresadas para parto, 31 (1,26 %) fueron múltiples o 1/80 nacimientos. Edad materna promedio 28 años, presentación fetal más frecuente cefálica-podálica en 12 (38,7 %) y se realizó cesárea en 27 (87,1 %) pacientes. La indicación de interrupción del embarazo más frecuente fue la electiva en 12 (38,7 %) y prematuridad en 11 (35,5 %). Se obtuvieron 62 productos y la mortalidad fue 17,7%, con 11 muertes fetales y/o perinatales, de estas 8 (72,7 %) fueron por causa de la monocorionicidad (P < 0,05) y sus consecuencias, en 5 (45,46 %) fetos fue por síndrome de transfusión intergemelar. Se diagnosticó restricción del crecimiento intrauterino en 13 (20,9 %) y en 26 (42 %) crecimiento fetal discordante moderado o severo. En 8 (8,1 %) neonatos se observaron anomalías congénitas predominantemente osteomusculares Conclusión: El embarazo múltiple tiene una elevada morbimortalidad fetal y neonatal dependiente principalmente de las complicaciones derivadas de la corionicidad, amniocidad, prematuridad y de la posibilidad de anomalías congénitas. Realizar el diagnóstico temprano de la corionicidad permite planificar medidas de vigilancia prenatal y garantizar la mejor calidad de vida materno feto/neonatal.

          Translated abstract

          Objective: To analyze epidemiological characteristics and fetal/neonatal complications of twin pregnancy at the Military Hospital of Maracaibo. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study of patients admitted with twin pregnancies, from January 1st, 1998 to May 30th, 2013. Maternal age, fetal presentations, mode of delivery, reason for interruption of the pregnancy, chorionicity, fetal/neonatal complications, weight and congenital anomalies were registered. Results: There were 31 (1.26 %) twin deliveries (or 1/80) in 2 469 pregnant woman admitted for delivery. Average maternal age was 28. The most common fetal presentation was vertex-breech in 12 (38.7 %) and in 27 (87.1 %) patients cesarean section was performed. The most common indication of pregnancy interruption were the elective delivery in 12 (38.7 %) and prematurity in 11 (35.5 %). 62 fetuses were obtained and mortality was 17.7 % with 11 stillbirth and/or perinatal death, in 8 (72.7 %) were due to monochorionicity (P< 0.05) and its consequences, of these 5 (45.46 %) were for twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Intrauterine growth restriction in 13 babies (20,9 %) and mild or severe discordant fetal growth in 26 (42 %). Congenital anomalies were observed in 8 fetuses (8.1 %) with a musculoskeletal predominance. Conclusion: Multiple pregnancy has high fetal/neonatal morbimortality which is principally dependent of the complications derived from the chorionicity, amnionicity, prematurity and the possibility of congenital anomalies. An early diagnose of the chorionicity allows the planning of antenatal care and guaranteeing the improvement of the mother and fetal/neonatal life and health.

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          Most cited references42

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          The sonographic diagnosis of chorionicity

          The differentiation between mono- and dichorionic placentation in twin pregnancies is of clinical importance because of the significant difference in perinatal morbidity and mortality between the two, and the increased surveillance indicated in monochorionic gestations. Application of ultrasonography has enabled very precise prenatal determination of chorionicity. While this is best performed in the first trimester when accuracy approaches 100%, even in the third trimester, using a composite cascade of available sonographic features, accuracy has been reported to approach 97%. While two clearly separate placentae or discordant fetal gender conform to dichorionicity, in most twin pregnancies other features need to be assessed to determine chorionicity. The presence of the 'lambda' or the 'T' sign in the presence of a single placenta, best determined in the first trimester, is the most reliable indicator of chorionicity, with measurements of the inter-twin membrane thickness and counting of the membrane layers being less reliable. In this article, we review the sonographic features that help in the accurate depiction of chorionicity.
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            Is zygosity or chorionicity the main determinant of fetal outcome in twin pregnancies?

            The purpose of this study was to examine whether fetal outcome in twin pregnancies is dependent on zygosity or chorionicity.
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              Twinning: mechanisms and genetic implications.

              In the past, twins have been studied to determine the genetic contribution to various disease processes. Recent work, however, suggests that monozygotic (MZ) twins are not truly identical. Many genetic forms of discordance have been described within MZ twin pairs and may even play a role in causing MZ twinning. Intra-uterine environmental differences in the allocation of the number of cells and in the placental vascular supply to each twin, as well as stochastic development events, may lead to major discordance at birth between the twins of a MZ pair.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                og
                Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela
                Rev Obstet Ginecol Venez
                Sociedad de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela
                0048-7732
                March 2015
                : 75
                : 1
                : 013-024
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital Militar de Maracaibo
                [2 ] Universidad del Zulia
                [3 ] Universidad del Zulia
                [4 ] Ambulatorio urbano La Victoria
                [5 ] Hospital Chiquinquirá
                Article
                S0048-77322015000100003
                718eab87-e5bb-4595-accb-6416fa038145

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0048-7732&lng=en
                Categories
                OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Multiple pregnancy,Twin morbidity and mortality,Corionicity,Discordant fetal growth,Twin-twin transfusion síndrome,Embarazo múltiple,Morbi-mortalidad en embarazo múltiple,Corionicidad,Crecimiento fetal discordante,Síndrome de transfusión intergemelar

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