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Evaluation of Riboflavin Intakes and Status of 20–64-Year-Old Adults in South Korea

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      Abstract

      A recent Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey indicated inadequate riboflavin intake in Koreans, but there is limited research regarding riboflavin status in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine riboflavin intake and status of Korean adults. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 412 (145 men and 267 women) healthy adults, aged 20–64 years, living in South Korea and urine samples were collected from 149 subjects of all subjects. The dietary and total (dietary plus supplemental) riboflavin intake was 1.33 ± 0.34 and 2.87 ± 6.29 mg/day, respectively. Approximately 28% of the subjects consumed total riboflavin less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Urinary riboflavin excretion was 205.1 ± 190.1 μg/g creatinine. Total riboflavin intake was significantly positively correlated to the urinary riboflavin excretion. (r = 0.17171, p = 0.0363). About 11% of the Korean adults had urinary riboflavin <27 μg/g creatinine indicating a riboflavin deficiency and 21% had low status of riboflavin (27 μg/g creatinine ≤ urinary riboflavin < 80 μg/g creatinine). Thus, one-third of Korean adults in this study had inadequate riboflavin status. In some adults in Korea, consumption of riboflavin-rich food sources should be encouraged.

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      Most cited references 42

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      Principles of nutritional assesMSent

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        Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans

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          Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health.

          Riboflavin is unique among the water-soluble vitamins in that milk and dairy products make the greatest contribution to its intake in Western diets. Meat and fish are also good sources of riboflavin, and certain fruit and vegetables, especially dark-green vegetables, contain reasonably high concentrations. Biochemical signs of depletion arise within only a few days of dietary deprivation. Poor riboflavin status in Western countries seems to be of most concern for the elderly and adolescents, despite the diversity of riboflavin-rich foods available. However, discrepancies between dietary intake data and biochemical data suggest either that requirements are higher than hitherto thought or that biochemical thresholds for deficiency are inappropriate. This article reviews current evidence that diets low in riboflavin present specific health risks. There is reasonably good evidence that poor riboflavin status interferes with iron handling and contributes to the etiology of anemia when iron intakes are low. Various mechanisms for this have been proposed, including effects on the gastrointestinal tract that might compromise the handling of other nutrients. Riboflavin deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for cancer, although this has not been satisfactorily established in humans. Current interest is focused on the role that riboflavin plays in determining circulating concentrations of homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Other mechanisms have been proposed for a protective role of riboflavin in ischemia reperfusion injury; this requires further study. Riboflavin deficiency may exert some of its effects by reducing the metabolism of other B vitamins, notably folate and vitamin B-6.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Food & Nutrition, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 132-714, Korea; E-Mails: lovecjy730@ 123456hanmail.net (J.Y.C.); kyn3000@ 123456naver.com (Y.-N.K.)
            Author notes
            [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: yunokcho@ 123456duksung.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-901-8376.
            Journal
            Nutrients
            Nutrients
            nutrients
            Nutrients
            MDPI
            2072-6643
            31 December 2014
            January 2015
            : 7
            : 1
            : 253-264
            25558909
            4303837
            10.3390/nu7010253
            nutrients-07-00253
            © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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