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      Negative Interrogatives and Whatnot : The Conversion of Negation in Indo-European

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          Abstract

          The present article examines the attenuation and conversion of outer and inner negations under interrogative scope (interrogative negation). Interrogative scope over outer and inner negations triggers network processes at the interface of syntax, semantics and pragmatics, which may in the long run result in the bleaching of their negating function. This explains the crosslinguistically frequent homophony of negations with non-negating particles, conjunctions and complementizers. I discuss four mechanisms, the Asking > Calling-into-Question Implicature (§§ 2, 3), the Asking-for-Confirmation Implicature (§§ 2, 3), the Affirmative-Negative Equivalence under Disjunction (§ 4), and the Litotes Effect (§ 5).

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            Tokh. B kucaññe, A kucim et skr. tokharika

            Pinault (2002)
            A bilingual Sanskrit/Tocharian B manuscript from the Petrovsky collection (SI P/65b1), kept in St. Petersburg, contains the line tokharika : kucaññe iscake. This text has been repeatedly adduced as a testimony for the name of the Tocharian language: Skt. tokharikahas been connected with Tukhāra, Toch. B kucaññe being understood as ``Kuchean'', despite various difficulties. The actual adjective meaning ``Kuchean'' is Toch. B kuśiññe, the form of which is not compatible with kucaññe. Starting from an examination of the original manuscript, a totally new interpretation of the line is proposed: the word tokharikareflects a Prakritic form of Gāndhārī type, and conceals two homonymous Sanskrit words of the Indian lexicographical tradition, to wit tūbarikah ``eunuch'' and tūbarikā ``fragrant earth''. Those words are actually translated by Toch. B kucaññe and iscake, respectively, the meaning of which can be established by independent evidence. Toch. A kucim, which is the perfect formal match of B kucaññe, is used as a derogatory term: ``unmanly, impotent'', or the like. Toch. B iscake is related to iścem ``clay'' in the same language, and refers to ``a kind of clay''. Furthermore, it shows important and far-reaching connections with several words of the same technical field in Indo-Iranian and in other languages of Central Asia.
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              Author and article information

              Contributors
              Journal
              22125892
              Indo-European Linguistics
              IEUL
              Brill (The Netherlands )
              2212-5884
              2212-5892
              2016
              : 4
              : 1
              : 150-189
              Affiliations
              Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München olav.hackstein@ 123456lrz.uni-muenchen.de
              Article
              10.1163/22125892-00401005
              718f1ee1-bc16-4fb5-aca5-dc92d25d2ec1
              Copyright 2016 by Olav Hackstein

              This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY-NC 4.0).


              General linguistics,Linguistics & Semiotics,Languages of Europe,Theoretical frameworks and disciplines
              inner and outer negated polar questions,high and low negation,expletive negation,rhetorical and non-rhetorical questions,Asking > Calling-into-Question Implicature,Asking-for-Confirmation Implicature,Litotes Effect in negated interrogative-exclamatives,interrogative negation > polar question particle, modal/discourse particle, causal conjunction, negated conditional conjunction, disjunctive particle

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